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ŚABDA-YOGA: The Language Of Yoga Demystified – Part III


Introduction 

In this series, Yogic terminologies will be taken up and their – 

  1. Etymological analysis, 
  2. Lexical descriptions and 
  3. Textual occurrences in Yogic texts and their commentaries, as available, will be presented.  Three texts -Yogasūtra, Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā and Bhagavad-gītā are consulted for textual occurrences portion. 

Śabda-yoga is intended to help students, teachers, and professionals of Yoga to develop a sound grammatical, contextual, and thereby an authentic and immersive understanding of Yoga terminologies. 

List of Words 

The words that appear in the Yoga-sūtras will be sequentially dealt initially and after that terms from other prominent Yoga texts will be taken up. Every śabda-yoga article will analyse five terms. The five terms for this article are – 

  1. Nirodha
  2. Draṣṭā
  3. Svarūpa
  4. Avasthāna
  5. Sārūpya

Note: The Word Tadā (from Yogasūtra) has been skipped, as it is not a very uncommon word, or a word that has any special significance in the context of Yoga-sūtras. Tadā simply means then. Then refers to the time when there are no Vṛttis in the Citta. (refer Sūtra 1.3).

Terms from Yoga-sūtras2,3 of chapter 1 are covered in this part of Śabda-yoga.

  1. Nirodha

Etymology

नि+रुध्+घञ् = निरोधः

ni+rudh+ghañ = nirodhaḥ

The root word is Rudh. The meaning of the root is आवरणम्āvaraṇam  – to surround. Other meanings such as to besiege, to enclose, to obstruct and to obscure are also given

The prefix is ni. The prefix here is probably used to indicate the meaning नितराम्nitarām – completely(while other meanings such as certainly,Exceedingly and so on also exist for the term)

The suffix is ghañ is used in the sense of bhava – the act. This suffix is added as the grammatical rule भावेbhāve (aṣṭādhyāyī 3.3.18)

Hence the derivation of the word would be – नितरांरुध्यतेइतिनिरोधःnitarāṃrudhyateitinirodhaḥ – the act of completeobstruction 

Lexicon 

Amarakośa has the following entry on the term Nirodha – 

निग्रहस्तुनिरोधःस्याद्  (..१३)

nigrahastunirodhaḥsyād

Nirodha means nigraha (Keeping in check, restraint, curbing)

It is to be noted from the etymology and lexicon that the meaning of the word in general ranges anywhere between complete obstruction to keeping check. It would now be interesting to see the meaning that Yogic texts fix for the word within the range of this meaning. 

Textual occurrences -Yogic texts 

Yogasūtra

There are four occurrences of the word in the Yogasūtra. Of the four, three are found in the first Pāda itself and the fourth and last reference is the third chapter.

The four references and their contextual meanings are briefly mentioned below –

  1. योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः॥१.२॥  – yogaścittavṛttinirodhaḥ1.2 – The very term Yoga is defined as the Nirodha of the activities of the mind. 

The views of the commentators 

Salient inputs from the traditional commentaries are presented below for the very first usage of the term Nirodha in the text. Only Bhoja’s definition is direct whereas others describe the state of Yoga from where  the meaning of the word Nirodha can also be understood. 

  • Vācaspati-miśra  –निरुध्यन्तेयस्मिन्प्रमाणादिवृत्तयोऽवस्थाविशेषेचित्तस्य – nirudhyanteyasminpramāṇādivṛttayo’vasthāviśeṣecittasya – (Yoga) is that state of mind in which the Vṛttis (activities/modifications of the Citta) are obstructed. 
  • Bhoja defines Nirodha as – निरोधोबहिर्मुखतयापरिणतिविच्छेदादन्तर्मुखतयाप्रतिलोमपरिणामेनस्वकारणेलयः nirodhobahirmukhatayāpariṇativicchedādantarmukhatayāpratilomapariṇāmenasvakāraṇelayaḥ – Obstruction and reversal of the outwardly changes (of the Vṛttis of the citta) and making (them) turn inwards and their dissolution in their cause (ultimately Prakṛti)
  • Sadaśivabrahmendraand others state that – राजसतामसवृत्तिनिरोधः– rājasatāmasa-vṛttinirodhaḥ – the obstruction of the Rājasic and Tāmasic activities of the mind is Nirodha.
  • Sri T Krishnamacharya in his Yogavallī commentary states – ध्यानविरोधियावद्बाह्यविषयकचित्तपरिणामनिरोधइत्यर्थः–dhyānavirodhi-yāvadbāhyaviṣayaka-cittapariṇāmanirodhaityarthaḥ – it is the obstruction of all those activities that are opposed to Dhyāna. 

Thus, it could be seen from the definition/description of the term Nirodha that, it is a complete obstruction of Vṛttis or obstruction of Vṛttis excluding Sāttvik ones. 

  1. अभ्यासवैराग्याभ्यांतन्निरोधः॥१.१२॥ – abhyāsavairāgyābhyāṁtannirodhaḥ1.12– This Sūtra describes abhyāsa and Vairāgya as the twop-fold means to attain the state of Nirodha.
  2. तस्यापिनिरोधेसर्वनिरोधान्निर्बीजःसमाधिः॥१.५१॥ – tasyāpinirodhesarvanirodhānnirbījaḥsamādhiḥ1.51– This Sūtra states that by obstruction of Saṃskāras generated by ṛtambharā-prajñā (by Para-vairāgya) everything (Vṛttis and Saṃskāras) gets obstructed and the ultimate state of Nirbīja is attained. 
  3. व्युत्थाननिरोधसंस्कारयोरभिभवप्रादुर्भावौनिरोधक्षणचितान्वयोनिरोधपरिणामः॥३.९॥vyutthānanirodhasaṁskārayorabhibhavaprādurbhāvaunirodhakṣaṇacitānvayonirodhapariṇāmaḥ3.9 This Sūtra speaks about Nirodha-Pariṇāma. This is one among the three Yogic Pariṇāmas (changes/modifications) that the Citta undergoes. The other two being Samādhi-pariṇāma and Ekāgratā-pariṇāma. Nirodha-pariṇāma is a change at the level of Saṃskāras in the Citta where the outwardly subliminal impressions (Saṃskāras) are subdued and the manifestation of subliminal impressions (Saṃskāras) that lead to Nirodha manifest.   

Bhagavad-gītā
The term Nirodha is not found in this text. There are occurrences of couple of related terms – Niruddha and Nirudhya. The two instances are as follows –

  1. यत्रोपरमतेचित्तंनिरुद्धंयोगसेवया।
    यत्रचैवात्मनाऽऽत्मानंपश्यन्नात्मनितुष्यति।।6.20।।yatroparamatecittaṃniruddhaṃyogasevayā. yatracaivātmanā”tmānaṃpaśyannātmani tuṣyati..6.20..                                    It is mentioned in this sixth chapter referencethat – By Yogic way of restraining (niruddha) the activities of the mind quietude is attained.
  2. सर्वद्वाराणिसंयम्यमनोहृदिनिरुध्यच।                                                                    मूर्ध्न्याधायात्मनःप्राणमास्थितोयोगधारणाम्।।8.12।।  sarvadvārāṇisaṃyamyamanohṛdinirudhya ca.  mūrdhnyādhāyātmanaḥprāṇamāsthito yogadhāraṇām..8.12..                              Here Yoga-Dhāraṇā is discussed. It is mentioned here that the mind has to be restrained (nirudhya) in the heart (mid-chest region) and so on.

Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā

The word Nirodha and associated expressions are found in nine verses. A range of expressions such as – Nirodha, Nirodhaka, (a) nirodhataḥ, Nirodhayet, Nirudhya & Nirodhana are found in the text. It is interesting to note that these expressions are used in the context of āsana, prāṇāyāmaand mudrās and not to indicate restraining/cessation of the activities of the mind as in the Yoga-sūtras.

  1. गुदंनिरुध्यगुल्फाभ्यांव्युत्क्रमेणसमाहितः।
    कूर्मासनंभवेदेतदितियोगविदोविदु॥१.२२॥gudaṁnirudhyagulphābhyāṁvyutkrameṇasamāhitaḥ kūrmāsanaṁbhavedetaditiyogavidovidu1.22   – In the description of kūrmāsana, the word Nirudhya (after obstructing/pressing) is used. The pressing of anus with heels is mentioned here. 
  2. चलेवातेचलंचित्तंनिश्चलेनिश्चलंभवेत्।
    योगीस्थाणुत्वमाप्नोतिततोवायुंनिरोधयेत्॥२.२॥calevātecalaṁcittaṁniścaleniścalaṁbhavet yogīsthāṇutvamāpnotitatovāyuṁnirodhayet2.2 – This is a popular verse that mentions the mutual connect of the mind and the breath. The expression Nirodhayet (one should restrain/obstruct) is found here. To control the mind, it is essential to control breath hence regulate/obstruct breath (vāyuṁnirodhayet – practice prāṇāyāma).
  3. यावद्वायुःस्थितोदेहेतावज्जिवनमुच्यते।
    मरणंतस्यनिष्क्रान्तिःततोवायुंनिरोधयेत्॥२.३॥yāvadvāyuḥsthitodehetāvajjivanamucyate maraṇaṁtasyaniṣkrāntiḥtatovāyuṁnirodhayet 2.3 – Similar to the verse above (2.2) here also the expression Nirodhayet (one should restrain/obstruct)  is found in the context of prāṇāyāma. However, the reason stated for prāṇāyāma is different. As long as the breath stays in the body, one is alive. Hence restrain (Nirodhayet) the breath within. 
  4. आकेशादानखाग्राच्चनिरोधावधिकुम्भयेद्।
    ततःशनैःसव्यनाड्यारेचयेत्पवनंशनैः॥२.४९॥                                                                        ā keśādānakhāgrāccanirodhāvadhikumbhayed।  tataḥśanaiḥsavyanāḍyārecayetpavanaṁśanaiḥ 2.49 – The word nirodhāvadhi (limit of restraining) occurs while discussing sūryabhedana-prāṇāyāma. This indicates the limits of restraining the breath within (from the hair on the head to the finger nail in the feet) after inhaling through right nostril.
  5. राजदन्तस्थजिह्वायांबन्धःशस्तोभवेदिति॥३.२२.B॥                                    अयंतुसर्वनाडीनामूर्ध्वगतिनिरोधकः।॥३.२३.A॥  rājadantasthajihvāyāṃbandhaḥśastobhavediti3.22.b॥  ayaṃtusarvanāḍīnāmūrdhvagatinirodhakaḥ3.23.aThe word Nirodhaka is used in the context of the Jihvābandha. It refers to the capability of this practice to block the movement of the Nāḍīs(Prāṇain it) in the upper direction and channelize it in SuṣumnāNāḍī.
  6. वायुःपरिचितोयस्मादग्निनासहकुण्डलीम्।
    बोधयित्वासुषुम्नायांप्रविशेदनिरोधतः॥४.१९॥  vāyuḥparicitoyasmādagnināsahakuṇḍalīm ।    bodhayitvāsuṣumnāyāṁpraviśedanirodhataḥ 4.19   – The expression anirodhataḥ (without being obstructed) is found in the initial portion of the fourth chapter. This verse speaks about the process of awakening the kuṇḍalī. When kuṇḍalī is awakened, Vāyu travels in suṣumnā channel without any obstruction (anirodhataḥ).     
  7. दिवानपूजयेल्लिङ्गंरात्रौचैवनपूजयेत्।
    सर्वदापूजयेल्लिङ्गंदिवारात्रिनिरोधतः॥४।४२॥    divānapūjayelliṅgaṁrātraucaivanapūjayet ।    sarvadāpūjayelliṅgaṁdivārātrinirodhataḥ 4.42 -The expression Nirodhataḥ(by obstructing)is found in this verse that mentions the need to get Prāṇain Suṣumnā for meditation to happen well. It is stated here that, by the obstruction (Nirodhataḥ)of its movement in sūrya and CandraNāḍīs, Prāṇa will flow in Suṣumnā. 
  8. ज्ञात्वासुषुम्नासद्भेदंकृत्वावायुंचमध्यगम्।
    स्थित्वासदैवसुस्थानेब्रह्मरन्ध्रेनिरोधयेत्॥४.१६॥      jñātvāsuṣumnāsadbhedaṁkṛtvāvāyuṁ ca madhyagam ।  sthitvāsadaivasusthānebrahmarandhrenirodhayet4.16 – In this verse also the same expression as above (quote 3) – nirodhayet (one should restrain/obstruct) is found. The context of discussion is as follows – Prāṇalaya (absorption of Prāṇa) leads manolaya (absorption of the mind). If one restrainsprāṇa in Brahmarandhra – then it gets dissolved, absorbed there and by that Manolaya (dissolution/absorption of the mind) also happens.  
  9. श्रवणपुटनयनयुगलघ्राणमुखानांनिरोधनंकार्यम्।
    शुद्धसुषुम्नासरणौस्फुटममलःश्रूयतेनादः॥४.६८॥      śravaṇapuṭanayanayugalaghrāṇamukhānāṁnirodhanaṁkāryam ।      śuddhasuṣumnāsaraṇausphuṭamamalaḥśrūyatenādaḥ4.68 – The expression Nirodhana (blocking) is found here. This is a description of ṣaṇmukhīmudrā that facilitates the practice of Nādānusandhāna. The blocking of the ears, by the thumbsis to be done so that external noises are not heard and one can focus on the Nāda within.  

From the above textualreferences, it can be seen that while in Bhagavad-gītā and Yogasūtra we find Nirodha and associated expressions connected solely to the activities of the mind, in Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā, Nirodha is found freely being used in the context of the body, breath etc also.

2.Draṣṭā

Etymology

दृश्+तृच् = द्रष्टा

dṛś+tṛc = draṣṭā

The root here is dṛś. The meaning of the root is  prekṣaṇa- to see  

The suffix is tṛc. It is used to indicate kartā – the doer. 

The suffix is added to the root as per the grammar rule ण्वुल्तृचौṇvultṛcau (aṣṭādhyāyī 3.1.133)

So the derivate statement is पश्यतिइतिद्रष्टा  -paśyatiitidraṣṭā – the one who sees is the seer. 

Lexicon – There are no entries for this term in amarakośa.

Textual occurrences -Yogic texts 

Yoga-sūtras

There are four occurrences of the term in this text.

  1. तदाद्रष्टुःस्वरूपेऽवस्थानम्॥१.३॥tadādraṣṭuḥsvarūpe’vasthānam .. 1.3 .. – This is the very third Sūtra of the text. It is stated here that, when in the state of Yoga – one is established in the conscious nature of the draṣṭa.
  2. द्रष्टृदृश्ययोःसंयोगोहेयहेतुः॥२.१७॥draṣṭṛdṛśyayoḥsaṃyogoheyahetuḥ .. 2.17 .. – This is a very important Sūtra where the cause of suffering according to Yoga philosophy is stated. The conjunction of the consciousness (draṣṭā) and matter, the seen ( dṛśya) is the cause of suffering.   
  3. द्रष्टादृशिमात्रःशुद्धोऽपिप्रत्ययानुपश्यः॥२.२०॥draṣṭādṛśimātraḥśuddho’pipratyayānupaśyaḥ .. 2.20 .. – This Sūtra defines draṣṭā  aspure awareness/consciousness that still gets reflected in the activities of the mind. 
  4. द्रष्टृदृश्योपरक्तंचित्तंसर्वार्थम्॥४.२३॥draṣṭṛdṛśyoparaktaṃcittaṃsarvārtham .. 4.23 .. – The unique nature of the mind is brought out in this Sūtra. It presents the cause for the Buddhists mistaking the mind asconsciousness. In Citta-  the reflection of both the consciousness (draṣṭā) and also the objects of world (dṛśya) outside – land. This can be understood by keen observation. Unable to separate the reflection of the consciousness in citta from the citta, Buddhists confuse the Citta to be the consciousness. 

Bhagavad-gītā

Two connected expressions are found in this text – draṣṭā & upadraṣṭā. 

  1. नान्यंगुणेभ्यःकर्तारंयदाद्रष्टानुपश्यति।                                        गुणेभ्यश्चपरंवेत्तिमद्भावंसोऽधिगच्छति॥१४.१९॥    nānyaṃguṇebhyaḥkartāraṃyadādraṣṭānupaśyati .      guṇebhyaścaparaṃvettimadbhāvaṃso’dhigacchati14.19 – In this verse the word draṣṭā is used to indicate the keen observer & scholar who observes his mind and consciousness and sees that it is the Guṇas that act and nothing else. By this, the observer (draṣṭā) –is able to see beyond the guṇas and realize the supreme beingSupreme Being. It is worth noting that – ĀcāryaŚaṅkarabhagavatpāda in his commentary – defines draṣṭā– in this verse, as vidvān (scholar). Thus, unlike the Yoga-sūtras here draṣṭā is not used to indicate pure consciousness. 
  2. उपद्रष्टानुमन्ताचभर्ताभोक्तामहेश्वरः।                            परमात्मेतिचाप्युक्तोदेहेऽस्मिन्पुरुषःपरः॥१३.२२॥                                  upadraṣṭānumantā ca bhartābhoktāmaheśvaraḥ .        paramātmeticāpyuktodehe’sminpuruṣaḥparaḥ13.22 – This verse uses the term upadraṣṭā. The consciousness is indicated by this term. ĀcāryaŚaṅkarabhagavatpāda                                                                                  explains upadraṣṭā as follows – …समीपस्थःसन्स्वयम्अव्यापृतःsamīpasthaḥ san svayamavyāpṛtaḥ… being in close proximity (the consciousness) observes and does not get involved in the actions. This upadraṣṭā of the Gītā is comparable to the draṣṭāof the Yoga-sūtras. 

Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā – The expression or associated expressions are not found in this text.

3.Svarūpam

Etymology 

स्वस्यरूपम्  = स्वरूपम्

svasyarūpam  =Svarūpam

This is a compound term. 

Svasya of oneself (first term), Rūpam – form (second term) – One’s own form 

This is a ṣaṣṭhītatpuruṣa compound as per the grammatical  ruleषष्ठीṣaṣṭhī (aṣṭādhyāyī 2.2.8)

Lexicon 

There are two references in Amarakośa for Svarūpa. 

स्वरूपंचस्वभावश्चनिसर्गश्च…(1.7.38)

…Svarūpa, svabhāva, nisarga indicate the meaning nature.

प्राप्तरूपस्वरूपाभिरूपाबुधमनोज्ञयोः (3.3.131)

The words prāptarūpa, Svarūpa, abhirūpa are used to indicate an intelligent person.It can also be used to indicate a beautiful entity.

Textual occurrences -Yogic texts 

Yogasūtra

There are nine occurrences of the term Svarūpa in this text. The following is a chapter-wise summary.

Chapter 1 – 2 occurrences 

  1. तदाद्रष्टुःस्वरूपेऽवस्थानम्॥१.३॥ – tadādraṣṭuḥsvarūpe’vasthānam .. 1.3 ..  – The consciousness (seer) is established in its original (conscious) form (svarūpa) during the state of Yoga. 
  2. स्मृतिपरिशुद्धौस्वरूपशून्येवार्थमात्रनिर्भासानिर्वितर्का॥१.४३॥ – smṛtipariśuddhauSvarūpaśūnyevārthamātranirbhāsānirvitarkā .. 1.43 .. – The Svarūpa or the form here, refers to that of the mind. When the mind reaches the state of Nirvitarka-samādhi, it is as if it loses its own form (Svarūpa) and completely attains the form of the object of focus.

Chapter 2 – 2 occurrences

  1. स्वस्वामिशक्त्योःस्वरूपोपलब्धिहेतुःसंयोगः॥२.२३॥    svasvāmiśaktyoḥsvarūpopalabdhihetuḥsaṃyogaḥ .. 2.23 .. – Here Svarūpa of two entities are discussed. When the Svarūpa of the sva – the matter – the possession of the consciousness – the dṛśya- is known, then it is called as  Bhoga (worldly experience/pleasures).                                                           When the Svarūpa of svāmi – the one who possesses – the consciousness – draṣṭā- is known – then it is called apavarga (liberation). Both Bhoga and Apavarga are caused by the conjunction saṃyoga of sva and svāmi. It is interesting to note the centrality of the term Svarūpa in the context of both dimensions of experiences (Bhoga and Apavarga) of the consciousness.
  2. स्वविषयासंप्रयोगेचितस्वरूपानुकारइवेन्द्रियाणांप्रत्याहारः॥२.५४॥    svaviṣayāsaṃprayogecitasvarūpānukāraivendriyāṇāṃpratyāhāraḥ .. 2.54 .. – The term Svarūpa here is used in the context of the definition of the fifth limb of Yoga – Pratyāhāra. When the senses do not get associated with their respective objects and as if imitate the form (Svarūpa) that the citta takes,it is called as Pratyāhāra. The commentators clarify that the citta operates at a subtle level and the senses operate at a gross level.Hence imitation of citta’sSvarūpaby the senses as such cannot happen. So it is stated “as if”. The essence is – the absolute obedience of the senses in not dissipating/distracting the focus of the mind which tries to take the form (Svarūpa) of object of meditation.

Chapter 3 – 3 occurrences 

  1. तदेवार्थमात्रनिर्भासंस्वरूपशून्यमिवसमाधिः॥३.३॥ – tadevārthamātranirbhāsaṃSvarūpaśūnyamivasamādhiḥ .. 3.3 .. The meaning of the term Svarūpa is the same as has been discussed above in the reference 1.43. 
  2. स्थूलस्वरूपसूक्ष्मान्वयार्थवत्त्वसंयमाद्भूतजयः॥३.४४॥ – sthūlaSvarūpasūkṣmānvayārthavattvasaṃyamādbhūtajayaḥ .. 3.44 ..
  3. ग्रहणस्वरूपास्मितान्वयार्थवत्त्वसंयमादिन्द्रियजयः॥३.४७॥ – grahaṇasvarūpāsmi​tānvayārthavattva​saṃyamādindriyajayaḥ .. 3.47 .. – References 3.44 & 3.47 use the word Svarūpa in a unique technical sense.  Towards the attainment of bhūtajaya (complete control over the elements) and indriyajaya (Complete control over the senses) – five levels (from gross to subtle levels) of Samyama  (Dhāraṇā-Dhyāna-Samādhi) is advised on the Bhūtas and Indiryas respectively. From the gross level the second/next level of Bhūtas and Indiryas is Svarūpa.Svarūpa of Bhūtas according to SadāśivaBrahmendra’scommentary to this Sūtra is –काठिन्यस्नेहौष्ण्यप्रेरणासर्वगतत्वलक्षणस्वरूपम् -kāṭhinyasnehauṣṇya-preraṇāsarvagatatva-lakṣaṇaSvarūpam–The toughness (of the earth), the binding nature (of the water), heat (of the fire), the nature of inducing movement (in the wind) and all pervasive nature (of the space).  In the case of Indriyas, their Svarūpa,is stated in simpler terms by SadāśivaBrahmendra in his commentary as  प्रकाशकत्वम्prakāśakatvam – the ability to shine light on objects/ reveal the nature of the objects.

Chapter 4 – 2 occurrences

  1. अतीतानागतंस्वरूपतोऽस्त्यध्वभेदाद्धर्माणाम्॥४.१२॥ – atītānāgataṃSvarūpato’styadhvabhedāddharmāṇām .. 4.12 .. – This Sūtra establishs the views that – the world in all its dimensions is a reality and not an imagination or just a projection unlike the Buddhist or the Vedāntis. Even the things of the past and the things of the future also exist in their true form (Svarūpa) (and not in mere imagination). In the subsequent Sūtra the how of this is clarified – the Svarūpa of things present is manifest, whereas the Svarūpa of the things of the past and future are un-manifest but exist. 
  2. पुरुषार्थशून्यानांगुणानांप्रतिप्रसवःकैवल्यंस्वरूपप्रतिष्ठावाचितिशक्तिरिति॥४.३४॥– puruṣārthaśūnyānāṃguṇānāṃpratiprasavaḥkaivalyaṃSvarūpapratiṣṭhāvācitiśaktiriti .. 4.34 .. – The Svarūpa-pratiṣṭhā – establishment in true nature is comparable to the svarūpeavasthānam stated in Sūtra1.3 earlier.  While it can be stated that svarūpeavasthānam (staying in the pure conscious state) – which is but a glimpse of Kaivalya– happens during the state of Yoga (as long as the state of Samādhi lasts), ultimate establishment in the pure conscious form – Svarūpapratiṣṭhā – is attained when the guṇas attain pratiprasava (rolling back into their causal state) once for all. 

Thus it can be seen the term Svarūpa, a very common term in Saṃskṛta language has many shades of meanings in Yoga-sūtras depending upon the context.   

Bhagvad-gītā

While the word rūpa is found in its various forms (rūpa, viśvarūpa, ugrarūpa, anantarūpa) in this text, the word Svarūpa is not found.

Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā

There is just one reference to the utilization of this term in the text. 

ततोयातोवह्न्यपानौप्राणमुष्णस्वरूपकम् 
तेनात्यन्तप्रदीप्तस्तुज्वलनोदेहजस्तथा॥३.६७॥

tatoyātovahnyapānauprāṇamuṣṇasvarūpakam

tenātyantapradīptastujvalanodehajastathā 3.67 .. – The process of awakening of  kuṇḍalī is being described here. The verse states that the apāna and jaṭharāgnireach the prāṇa which is already of the nature of being hot (uṣṇa-svarūpaka). 

4.Avasthāna

Etymology

अव+स्था+ल्युट् = अवस्थानम्

ava+sthā+lyuṭ = avasthānam

The prefix is ava. It indicatesदशा –daśā – the state.  

The root word is sthāthat means गतिनिवृत्तिःgatinivṛttiḥ – absence of movement

The suffix is lyuṭ that is used to indicate bhāva – the act of. The suffix is added by the grammatical rule ल्युट्चlyuṭ ca(aṣṭādhyāyī 3.3.115).

The derivative statement for the word would be अवस्थीयतेइतिअवस्थानम् – avasthīyateitiavasthānam – the act, the state of staying or lack of movement is avasthāna. 

Lexicon – The word is not found in amarakośa

Textual Occurrences – In Yoga texts 

Yoga-sūtras

There is a lonely reference to this term here. It is as follows –  

तदाद्रष्टुःस्वरूपेऽवस्थानम्॥१.३॥

tadādraṣṭuḥsvarūpe’vasthānam .. 1.3 .. – The Consciousness is established (avasthana) in its own form during Yoga. 

Bhagavad-gītā&Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā – The word is not found in both these texts. 

5.Sārūpya

Etymology 

This word is derived in two levels. First the word Sarūpa is arrived at and from that the word sārūpyam is derived. 

समानंरूपंयस्यसःसरूप:

samānaṃrūpaṃyasyasaḥsarūpaḥ

The one who has a similar form is sarūpa

At the first level it is a compound where the word sarūpa is arrived at by combining the words 

Samāna (similar/identical) and rūpa (form). They are combined as per the Bahuvrīhi compound rule तेनसहेतितुल्ययोगेtenasahetitulyayoge (aṣṭādhyāyī  2.2.28)

सरूप+ष्यञ् = सारूप्यम्

sarūpa+ṣyañ = sārūpyam

The suffix ṣyañ is added to the word sarūpa to denote the nature or attribute. The suffix is added as per the grammar rule गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यःकर्मणिचguṇavacanabrāhmaṇādibhyaḥkarmaṇi ca (aṣṭādhyāyī 5.1.124)

Hence the derivative statement would be –सरूपस्यभावःसारूप्यम्sarūpasyabhāvaḥsārūpyam-  The nature of sarūpa is sārūpyam (identical nature/form)

Lexicon – This term is not found in Amarakośa.

Textual Occurrences – Yoga Texts

Yogasūtra

There is just one occurrence of this term in this text. 

वृत्तिसारूप्यमितरत्र॥१.४॥

vṛttisārūpyamitaratra .. 1.4 ..- The Sūtra states that when not in state of Yoga, the form of the consciousness attains (reflects) the – form similar – (sārūpya) to that of the activities of the mind (Vṛttis).

Bhagavad-gītā & Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā– This term is not found in these two texts.

It is to be noted that, while the term sārūpya is generally found in āgamas & purāṇasand other divinity oriented systems of knowledge– in Yogic context from among the three major texts considered – it is seen exclusively in Yoga-sūtras only.

References and web-tools utilized

  1. Advaitasharada –  https://advaitasharada.sringeri.net/
  2. aṣṭādhyāyī – https://ashtadhyayi.com/
  3. Aksharamukha  – https://aksharamukha.appspot.com/
  4. Avyayakośaḥ, śrīśrīvatsāṅkācāryaḥ, saṃskṛtavidyāsamitiḥ, chennai, 2004
  5. Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana alias amarakoṣa of amarasiṃha with the commentary vyākhyāsudhāor rāmāśramī by bhānujidīkṣita, Edited with notes by M.M.PanditShivadattaDadimatha, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Prathisthan, Delhi, Reprint 2002
  6. Yoga-vaiśāradī – https://kymyogavaisharadi.org/

ŚABDA-YOGA

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