close logo

The Medicinal Efficacy of 36 Padakas (drugs) in Agnipurāna


In Indic knowledge systems, the purāṇas are at the third hierarchical level, which carries the essence of Vedas. Though they are ancient, their importance is being substantiated (purāpi navaṃ bhavati) in the society by teaching Vedic way of lifestyle through moral stories, in which, science and technology were explained contextually. Those are encyclopedic in nature. For every mundane obstacle, there will be a solution in purāṇas. Presently, the entire world is suffering from COVID-19. Lacking immunity is the cause to be affected by this pandemic. Boosting immunity is one of the solutions to face this virus. During this pandemic, several traditional methods of immunity booster were practiced and resulted positively. In this juncture, interestingly, as a solution, a medicinal preparation is mentioned as a rahasyavidya (secret knowledge) in 140th adhyāya (yuddhajayārṇava) of Agnipurāṇa. In this preparation, 36 medicinal drugs were used, and it was also praised as mṛtasañjīvani and sarvagohāriṇi. Through classical literature, it is a difficult task to identify the drug and preparation method. So, in this study, the importance of 36 drugs will be highlighted and the medicinal efficacy of individual drugs will also be cross-referred from Ayurvedic materia medica along with their noted botanical names. This study may give scope to test this clinically. Similarly, it may encourage the young traditional scholars to study the purāṇas scientifically for the welfare of the society.


Vedas are the source of knowledge (vedo’khilo dharmamūlam) [1]. For every scientific idea, there will be a fundamental reference in the Vedas. As the purāṇas are also conveying the essence of the Vedas, they are at the third level in Indic knowledge systems, and collectively, they are also being considered as pañcamaveda [2]. Though they are ancient, their importance is being substantiated (purāpi navaṃ bhavati) in the society by teaching Vedic way of lifestyle through ethical stories. Such a lifestyle may balance a person’s physical, psychic, social, and spiritual condition. There are 18 mahāpurāṇas, which are encyclopedic in nature. These scriptures (purāṇas) always support the harmonic environment between man and nature. Thus, each purāṇa contains the messages of environmental conservation [3]. In our shastras, the primary importance is given to physical fitness, because, the physical body is the instrument for all activities (śarīramādyaṃ khalu dharmasādhanam) [4]. Since creation starts, every living thing getting a disease and getting rid of it is a common phenomenon. Lacking immunity is the primary cause to get a disease. Medicinal plants are playing a vital role in boosting immunity. The purāṇic literature describes all aspects of the medical system including plant science [5] and veterinary medicine [6]. Some of the medicinal preparations seem more unique than Ayurveda. Such preparation is found in Agnipurāṇa, one of the 18 major purāṇas. This was also praised as mṛtasañjīvani and sarvagohāriṇi. This medicine may be useful as an immunity enhancer in this pandemic COVID-19. There are 36 different medicinal herbs involved in this preparation, in this study, the importance of 36 drugs will be highlighted and the medicinal efficacy of individual drugs will also be presented from Ayurvedic materia medica along with their noted botanical names.

Health Science in Agnipurāna

Agnipurāṇa is one of the 18 mahāpuranās. Its title itself indicates that it was narrated by Agni to Vaśistha. It contains 16000 slokas distributed in 383 Adhyayas. It has not only the compilation of health science information from various Ayurvedic treatises but also carries information regarding some gaps, secrets, and some issues which are not discussed in Ayurveda. For instance, the preparation of 36 padakas, etc. Basic principles of health, anatomy, physiology, gynecology, medicine, etc. are available in Agnipurāna which was referenced from Suśruta Samhita, Astanga Sangraha, Vrnda Madhava and Cakradatta, etc [7].

Traditional immune boosters

According to Ayurveda, health depends on immunity (balādhiṣṭhānam ārogyam) [8] and food is the main factor to enhance immunity. Traditionally, in Indian cuisine, herbs and spices are used in cooking according to their nutritional benefits and their ability to strengthen our immune system. in General, the Indian kitchen itself is considered a small natural dispensary. According to the World Health Organization, around 80% of the world population uses herbal medicines for primary health care. There are certain popular herbs viz. guduchi, ashwagandha, garlic, turmeric, and ginger are used to boost immunity [9].

During COVID 19 crisis, the Ministry of AYUSH also gave guidelines for Ayurveda’s immunity-boosting measures [10]. According to this, under general measures:

  • drinking warm water daily,
  • the practice of Yogasana, Pranayama, and meditation for at least 30 minutes every day
  • spices like haridrā, jīraka, dhaniyā and laśuna are recommended in cooking.

Under Ayurvedic Immunity Promoting Measures:

  • Take Chyavanprash 10gm (1tsf) in the morning,
  • Drink herbal tea/decoction (kvātha) made from tulasī (Basil), dālacīnī (Cinnamon) marīca (Black pepper), śuṇṭhī (Dry Ginger) and Munakka (Raisin) – once or twice a day.
  • Golden Milk- which is made up of half teaspoon haridrā (turmeric) powder in 150 ml hot milk – once or twice a day.

During dry cough / sore throat:

  • Steam inhalation with fresh pudīnā (Mint) leaves or yavānikā (Caraway seeds) can be practiced once a day.
  • lavaṅga (Clove) powder mixed with natural sugar/honey can be taken 2-3 times a day in case of cough or throat irritation.

In the above measures, 99% of the ingredients are herbs that are limited and commonly used in our daily food and drinks not only for enhancing immunity but also for improving our digestive system. Interestingly, in Agnipurāṇa, there are 36 drugs mentioned and described a medicinal preparation out of those herbs and used it as mṛtasañjīvani and sarvagohāriṇi. This concept will be explained in detail further.

The medicinal Efficacy of 36 Padakas (drugs)

There is a concept of ‘ṣaḍtriṃśatpadakāni’ (36 drugs) in 140th adhyāya (yuddhajayārṇava) of Agnipurāṇa [11], where all 36 different drugs are used in a medicinal preparation and used as sarvagohāriṇi. This knowledge was kept under rahasyavidya (secret knowledge) during the war. Presently, the entire universe is suffering from bio-war with pandemic COVID 19, and the death rate is creasing day by day. There is no sufficient vaccine for it so far. At this juncture, this preparation is given scope towards knowing its medicinal importance. Ayurvedic lexicons like Bhavaprakasha [12], Raja Nighantu [13], and ENVIS website are followed to get the therapeutic information of each herb along with noted botanical names. The entire information is stated in the table below.

Table 1: List of 36 padakas (drugs) depicted from Agnipurāna along with their botanical names and therapeutic uses

Plant/drug Name

Botanical name

Therapeutic uses 

1.       harītakī
Terminalia chebula RETZ.
dīpanī (digestive), medhyā (memory enhancer), rasāyanī (rejuvenating), cakṣuṣyā (relieves eye diseases), āyuṣyā (improves longevity), bṛṃhaṇa (nourishes the body), anulomana (clears the channels), śvāsa-kāsa-prameha-arśaḥ kuṣṭha-śotha-udarakṛmīn, grahaṇaroga-vibandha-viṣamajvarān (relieves diseases like breathlessness, cough, diabetic, piles, skin diseases, swelling, stomach issues, dysentery, constipation, and severe fever) gulma-ādhmāna-vraṇa-cchardi-hikkā-kaṇṭha-hṛd-āmayān (relieves diseases like gastritis, swelling of the body,  wound, vomition, hiccup, throat disease, and heart disease), kāmalā (jaundice), śūla (pain) ānāha (constipation), plīha (spleen), yakṛdgadam (liver disease), aśmara (gravel), mūtrakṛcchruṃ (strangury), mūtrāghātaṃ (urinary disease) – (B.P.)
2.       akṣī
Gymnema sylvestre R.BR.
dīpanaṃ, bhedi (purgative), avidāhi , śleṣmalaṃ (phlegmatic), vātanut (releves vata diseases) – (B.P.)
3.       dhātrī
Emblica officinalis GAERTN.
raktapitta (bile-blood), pramehaghnaṃ (relieves diabetic), vṛṣyaṃ (aphrodisiac), rasāyana (rejuvenating), tridoṣajit (relieves tridosha related diseases) – (B.P.)
4.       marīca
Piper nigrum
dīpanaṃ (digestive), kapha-vātajit (relieves kapha and vata diseases), pittakaraṃ (aggravates pitta), śvāsa-śūla-kṛmīnharet (relieves diseases like breathlessness, pain, ) – (B.P.)
5.       pippalī
Piper longum L.
dīpanī (digestive), vṛṣyā (aphrodisiac) , rasāyanī (rejuvenative), vātaśleṣmaharī (releves vata and pitta diseases)
recanī (evacuative), śvāsa-kāsa-udara-jvarān hanti (relieves diseases breathlessness, cough, stomach pain, and fever)
kuṣṭha-prameha-gulma-arśa-plīhā-śūla-āmamārutān, pittapraśamanī (relieves diseases like skin diseases, diabetic, gastritis, piles, spleen, pain, indigestion and pitta diseases) – (B.P.)
6.       śiphā (dravantī)
Croton polyandrum
jvaraghnī(releves fever) kṛmihā (removes virus) śūlaśamanī (releves pain), rasāyanī (rejuvenative) – (R.N.)
7.       vahni
Plumbago zeylanica L.
pācana (digestive), grahaṇa-kuṣṭha-śotha-arśa-kṛmi-kāsanut vāta-śleṣma-hara grāhī-vātā-arśa-śleṣma-pittahṛt (releves diseases like dysentery, skin diseases, piles, kapha and pitta diseases) – (B.P.)
8.       śuṇṭhī
Zingiber officinale ROSC.
āmavātaghnī (relieves vata diseases), pācanī (digestive), kapha-vāta-vibandhanut (relieves diseases like kapha, vata and constipation) vṛṣya (aphrodisiac), svaryyā (good for throat), vami-śvāsa-śūla-kāsa-hṛdāmayān hanti (relieves diseases like vomiting, breathlessness, pain, cough and heart diseases), ślīpada-śopha-arśa, ānāha- udaramārutān, vibandhabhedinī (relieves diseases like elephantiasis, tumor, piles, epistasis, stomach gases, and constipation diseases) – (B.P.)
9.       pippalī (mūla)
Piper longum L.
dīpanaṃ (rejuvenating), pācanaṃ (digestive), pittakaraṃ (aggravates pitta), kapha-vāta-udarāpaham (releves diseases like kapha, vata and stomach diseases), ānāha-plīha-gulmaghnaṃ  (relieves diseases like epistasis, spleen, and gastritis), kṛmi-śvāsa-kṣayāpaham (relieves virus, breathlessness, and tuberculosis diseases) – (B.P.)
10.   guḍūcī
Tinospora cordifolia (WILLD.) HOOK.F. & THOMS.
rasāyanī (rejuvenating), saṃgrāhiṇī (relieves dysentery), balya (immune booster), agnidīpinī (improves digestive fire) doṣatraya-āma-tṛṭ-dāha-meha-kāsa-pāṇḍutām-kāmalā-kuṣṭha-vāta-arśa-jvara-kṛmivamīn haret (relieves diseases like tridosha related diseases, indigestion, dehydration, diabetic, cough, jaundice, libidinous, skin disease, vata disease, piles, fever, and virus) – (B.P.)
11.   vacā
Acorus calamus L.
vibandha-ādhmāna-śūla-ghnī (relieves diseases like constipation, swelling of body and pain), śakṛt-mūtra-viśodhinī
apasmāra-kapha-unmāda-anilān (relieves constipation, urinary disorders,  purifies channels, cures epilepsy, kapha disease, insanity, and pitta diseases) – (B.P.)
12.   nimbaka
Azadirachta indica A. JUSS.
grāhī (relieves dysentery), agnivātanut (treats pitta and vaata diseases), tṛṭ- kāsa-jvara-aruci-kṛmi-praṇut (cures diseases like dehydration, cough, fever, appetite and removes microbes), vraṇa-pitta-kapha-cchardi-kuṣṭha-mehanut (treats wound, pitta disease, kapha disease, omission, skin disorder, and prameha)
vātalaṃ (aggravates vata), sarvārocaka-kuṣṭhanut-gulmārśa (relieves disorders like appetite, skin disease, gastritis, and piles) – (B.P.)
13.   vāsaka
Adhatoda vasica NEES
vātakṛt-svaryaḥ, kapha-pitta-nāśanaḥ śotha-tṛṭ-hṛt śvāsa-kāsa-jvara-cchardi-meha-kuṣṭha-kṣayāpahaḥ – (B.P.)
14.   śatamūlī
Asparagus racemosus WILLD.
rasāyanī, medhyā, netryā (cures eye problems), gulma-atisārajit (diarrhoea)
śukra (improves virility), stanyakarī, valyā (cures fungus), vātapitta-śothajit
medhyā, vṛṣyā, arśa-grahaṇī-āmayān, tridoṣaghna – (B.P.)
15.   saindhava
dīpanaṃ, rucyaṃ, vṛṣyaṃ, tridoṣahṛt – (B.P.)
16.   sinduvāraka
Vitex negundo Linn.
kapha-vāta-kṣayāpahaḥ, kuṣṭha-kaṇḍūtiśamanaḥ, śūlahṛt-kāsasiddhidaḥ – (B.P.)
17.   kaṇṭakārī
solanum xanthocarpum
pācanī, kāsa-śvāsa-jvara-kapha-anilān pīnasaṃ (cures catarrh) pārśvapīḍā (removes back pain)-kṛmi-hṛdāmayān, śukrasya recanaṃ, bhedi, kapha-marut-kaṇḍū-kāsa-krimi-jvarān-hanyāt, garbhakāriṇī (makes conceive) – (B.P.)
18.   gokṣura
Pedalium murex L.- 
balakṛt (boosts immunity), vastiśodhanaḥ, dīpana, vṛṣya, puṣṭida (improves energy), aśmarīharaḥ, prameha-śvāsa-kāsa-hṛdroga-vātanut – (B.P.)
19.   bilva
Aegle marmelos (L.) CORREA EX. SCHULTZ
grāhī, vātaśleṣmahara, balya (immune booster), pācana – (B.P.)
20.   punarnavā
Trianthema portulacastrum L.
pāṇḍughnī, dīpanī,  
śophā-anila-śleṣma-harī vraṇya-udara-praṇut – (B.P.)
21.   balā
Sida cordifolia
bala (immune booster) -kāntikṛt (rejuvenator), grāhi, samīra-pitta-nāśanam – (B.P.)
22.   eraṇḍamuṇḍī
23.   rucaka
Crocus sativus L.
śira-vraṇa-jantujit, vamiharaṃ, varṇyaṃ doṣatrayāpaham – (B.P.)
24.   bhṛṅga
Cinnamomum cassia
kaphavātaghnaṃ, kaṇḍū-aruci-nāśanam hṛd- vastiroga(removes spasm in the bladder)-arśa-kṛmi-pīnasaśukra-hṛt – (B.P.)
25.   kṣāra
Adenanthera pavonina L.
used in diarrhea, haemorrhage from the stomach, haematuria), anti-inflammatory (in rheumatic affections, gout). Seeds— anti-cephalic; also used for the treatment of paralysis. A decoction is given in pulmonary affections. [14]
26.   parpaṭa
Fumaria indica PUGSLEY
pitta-bhrama (treats dizziness) -tṛṣṇā (treats dehydration)-kapha-jvarān hanti, saṃgrāhī, dāhanut-vātala – (B.P.)
27.   dhanyāka
Coriandrum sativum L.
vṛṣyaṃ, mūtralaṃ, dīpanaṃ (improves digestion), pācanaṃ, jvara-ghnaṃ, rocakaṃ grāhi, tridoṣanut tṛṣṇā- dāha-vami-śvāsa-kāsā-āmarśaḥ kṛmipraṇut, pittanāśi – (B.P.)
28.   jīraka
Cuminum cyminum L.
dīpanaṃ, saṃgrāhi, pittalaṃ, medhyaṃ, garbhāśayaviśuddhi-kṛt (clears pregnancy issues), jvaraghnaṃ, pāvanaṃ, vṛṣyaṃ, balyaṃ (immune booster), rucyaṃ, kaphāpaham, cakṣuṣyaṃ, pavana- ādhmāna-gulma-ccharda-atisārahṛt – (B.P.)
29.   śatapuṣpī
Anethum sowa KURZ.
dīpanaṃ, saṃgrāhi, pittalaṃ, medhyaṃ, garbhāśayaviśuddhi-kṛt (clears pregnancy issues), jvaraghnaṃ, pāvanaṃ, vṛṣyaṃ, balyaṃ (immune booster), rucyaṃ, kaphāpaham, cakṣuṣyaṃ, pavana- ādhmāna-gulma-ccharda-atisārahṛt – (B.P.)
30.   javānikā (yavānikā)
Trachyspermum ammi
pācanī, rucyā (improves taste), dīpanī, pittalā-śukraśūlahṛt। vāta-śleṣma-udara- anāha-gulma-plīha-kṛmi-praṇut – (B.P.)
31.   viḍaṅga
Embelia ribes BURM.F.
kṛmighna, vahni karaṃ, śūla-ādhmāna-udara-śleṣma-kṛmi-vāta-vibandhanut – (B.P.)
32.   vacā (mahābharīvacā)
Alpinia galanga
kapha-kāsanut, susvaratvakarī (improves voice), rucyā, hṛt-kaṇṭha (cures throat problems) -mukha-śodhinī – (B.P.)
33.   khadira
Acacia catechu (L.F.) WILLD. 
dantya (good for tooth) kaṇḍū-kāsa-arucipraṇut (cures tastelessness),
medoghna, kṛmi-meha-jvara-vraṇān
śvitra-śotha-āma-pitta-pāṃḍu-kuṣṭha-kaphān haret – (B.P.)
34.   kṛtamalā
Cassia fistula L.
jvara-hṛdroga-pitta-vāta-udāvarttaśūlanut (treats menstrual discharges issues), rucyaṃ, kuṣṭha-pitta-kaphāpaham, koṣṭhaśuddhikaraṃ (cures stomach issues) – (B.P.)
35.   haridrā
Curcuma longa L.
kṛmighnī, kapha-pittanut, varṇyā (improves brightness in the skin) tvagdoṣa (cures skin disease) -meha (good for diabetics)-śotha-pāṇḍu-vraṇāpahā (heals wound) – (B.P.)
36.   siddhārtha
Brassica alba (L.) BRASSICACEAE
kapha-vātaghna (cures kapha and vata diseases), raktapitta-agnivardhanaḥ (treats bile-blood problem and improves digestion), jayetkaṇḍūṃ, kuṣṭha-koṣṭha-kṛmi-grahān (R.N.)

There are 36 medicinal drugs involved in this preparation, in which one is Saidhava (salt) and the remaining 35 are herbs. The herbs haridrā, jīraka, dhaniyā, śuṇṭhī and yavānikā are only matching with the list stated by AYUSH. According to Agnipurāṇa, the combination of 36 is useful not only for an immune booster but also works on various diseases. Although the drugs/herbs are common in the Ayurveda and Agnipurāṇa, the combination and the preparation are unique.

While gathering the medicinal information from Ayurveda lexicons and materia medica, in some places, there was a lot of confusion in multiple entries for one herbal entity. For instance, the balā (Sida cordifolia) herbs have three types viz. mahābalā (Sida rhombifolia) and atibalā (Abutilon indicum), nāgabalā (Grewia hirsuta). Similarly, kaṇṭakārī has two types such as vārtākī (solanum indicum) and kaṇṭakārī (solanum xanthocarpum). The medicinal term ‘eraṇḍamuṇḍī’ was not found anywhere in the Ayurveda materia medica. There are two similar terms repeated at 9th (taken as pippalīmūla) and 32nd (considered as mahābharīvacā) places for pippalī and vacā respectively.

The preparation method is described in brief. But it is not clear which part of the herb needs to be used. The medicine can be taken as cūrṇa (powder) or vaṭikā (tablet) or avaleha (lickable item) or kaṣāya (decoction) or modaka (edible item) or guḍakhaṇḍaka (sweet item). The medicine will be mṛtasañjīvana, when it is taken with madhu (honey) or dhṛta (ghee) or ghṛtantaila (ghee oil) [15]. The dosage should be karṣārdhaṃ (8 grams) or karṣamekaṃ (16 grams) or palārdhaṃ (32 grams) or palamekakaṃ (64 grams) [16].

According to the individual curative factors, there are different combinations stated within 36.  As they mostly act as dīpanas (digestive fire improvers), rasāyanas (rejuvenators), balavardhakas (immune boosters), the first nine herbs cure all diseases. The amalgamation of 1 to 8 and 26 to 27 pacify vata and 4 to 6, 5to 8 and including the 15th one cure kapha diseases. Similarly, the combination of 1 to 3, 6 to 9 herbs and the 11th one is useful in grahaśānti (planetary influence) [17]. According to the information on medicinal usage, 70% of medicinal drugs are working on śvāsa (breath related issues) and kāsa (cough-related issues) which are the majorly identified symptoms in COVID 19. As diabetes mellitus is also a gifted disease due to this pandemic, most of the drugs are working on prameha (diabetic Mellitus).


Undoubtedly, the purāṇas facilitate solutions for current mundane problems, if we study and scientifically look at them. The present study is only focused on bringing out this ignored scientific practice and exploring it with supportive medicinal information from Ayurveda to show its medicinal importance in this COVID 19 pandemic. This preparation is unique and not matching with any mentioned in Ayurveda. Some terminological issues need to be classified with Ayurveda and botany experts. The present work may give rise to study this concept clinically to find further insights. Similarly, this may motivate the young transitional students and scholars to study the purāṇass in a scientific way for the welfare of society.

Watch the video presentation of the paper here!


  1. B.P. – Bhavaprakasha
  2. R.N. – Raja Nighantu


  1. Narayana Ram Acharya, Manusmriti with Manvarthamuktavali of kulluka, Satyabhamabai Panudrang, Nirnaya Sagar Press, Bombay, Adhyaya 2, Sloka 6, p.33
  2. Sudhama Sinha, Chandogyopanishad (Gudarthaprakashika), Rohatasamandal, Sri Lakshminarayana yajnasamiti, Bodhagaya,  Adhyaya 7, Khand 7, vakyam 1, p.740
  3. Renugadevi R, Environmental Ethics in Hindu Vedas and Puranas in India, African Journal of History and Culture (AJHC) Vol. 4(1), pp. 1-3, January 2012
  4. Mahendra Pratap Shastri, Kalidas Kumarasambhavam, Canto V, Ram Narain Lal, Publisher and bookseller,Allahabad, 1941, sloka 33. p.85
  5. Dhananjay Vasudeo Dwivedi, Importance of Plants as depicted in Puranas, Indian Journal of History of Science, 52.3 (2017) 251-274
  6. SK Jain et al., Some folk herbal medicines for possible use in Veterinary Practices, Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, Vol.2(2), April 2003, pp. 118-125
  7. P V V Prasad,  Medical information in Agni Purana, Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad, Jan-Jun 2007;37(1):87-106.
  8. Anna Moreswar Kunte, Ashtanga Hridaya, Pandurang Jawaji, Nirnaya Sagar Press, Bombay, 1939, Nidana Sthana, Adhyaya 2, p.449,
  9. Sunita Singh, Magical ayurvedic spices and herbs that can boost our immunity, MOJ Food Process Technols. 2020;8(3):99‒102.
  10.  Ministry of AYUSH, Ayurveda’s immunity boosting measures for self care during COVID 19 crisis,
  11. Dut M N., Agnipurana, Cosmo Publications, New Delhi, 1987, adhyaya 140 (yuddhajayarnava), Sloka.2-5, Vol. 8, p. 1054
  12. Amritpal Singh, Bhavaprakasha (Sanskrit text with English translation), Choukhamba Orientalia, Delhi, 2007
  13. Indra Deva Tripati, Raja Nighantu with Dravyagunaprakashika Hindi Commentary, Chaukhamba Krishanadas Academy, Varanasi 2006
  14. Khare C P, Indian Medicinal Plants an Illustrated Dictionary, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 2007, p.18
  15. Dut M N., Agnipurana, Cosmo Publications, New Delhi, 1987, adhyaya 140 (yuddhajayarnava), Sloka.7-8, Vol. 8, p. 1054
  16. Dut M N., Agnipurana, Cosmo Publications, New Delhi, 1987, adhyaya 140 (yuddhajayarnava), Sloka.9-10, Vol. 8, p. 1054
  17. Dut M N., Agnipurana, Cosmo Publications, New Delhi, 1987, adhyaya 140 (yuddhajayarnava), Sloka.11-16, Vol. 8, p. 1055

This paper was presented as a part of a Conference on Puranas and Indic Knowledge Systems, organized by Indic Academy on 26th and 27th March 2021.

(Image credit: DNA India)

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article belong to the author. Indic Today is neither responsible nor liable for the accuracy, completeness, suitability, or validity of any information in the article.

Leave a Reply

Previous Next

More Articles By Author