In today’s times, the quintessential man is no longer happy. The world already plagued by the ongoing pandemic along with the stressors in all arenas of modern human life, is also fighting a pandemic within itself. Human society, marred by anxiety, depression, hopelessness, rejection and disconnect, calls for attention. The situation presents an urgent need to address the pandemic denting the human society. The solution may lie with Hindu scriptures. The Hindu scriptures had, thousands of years ago, identified the causes of sufferings which modern psychology tends to deal with at present. The author here tries to make a humble attempt to explore the various aspects of Dharma Vyadha Geeta from Vana Parva of Mahabharata as told to Yudhisthira by Sage Markandeya and draw a connection between various theories and therapies as prescribed by modern psychology. Vyadha Geeta is an astounding piece of work which reveals the path towards happiness and peace for the householders. It states that, by going deep into the reality of duties and responsibilities, as part of an individual’s Dharma, one can seek happiness and peace. The author by means of this article shall first introduce the subject and follow it with an analysis of Dharma Vyadha Geeta’s relevance in contemporary times. The author shall make a case of how adhering to the path of Dharma, taking decisions based on the situation, working without expectation and attachment for the result is a path towards self-actualization as also defined by modern psychology. Lastly, the author shall summarise and evaluate the findings of the article and humbly attempt to conclude the interplay between dharmic scriptures, here Dharma Vyadha Geeta and modern psychology.
Keywords: Vyadha Geeta, dharma, happiness and peace, sufferings, self-actualization, duties and responsibilities
A hypothetical counselling setup between a seventeen-year-old girl and her counselor would have somewhat a similar conversation as produced below:
“Counsellor: ‘May I ask you to share with me about what brings you here?’
Client: ‘I don’t feel good most of the time. I’m the only child of my parents. My parents are busy with their careers and work. I stay alone with my maid. My father stays in a different city. My mother says she enjoys it more with her friends than with me. Due to the pandemic, I’m unable to visit my grandma who brought me up. I just don’t know what to do. I stay at home the entire day and I’m putting on weight and I look awful. I don’t wish to attend the college lectures. I feel the teachers judge me and often they have criticised me before the entire class. I feel nobody loves me.’”
This is an ordinary scenario in contemporary times. The nuclear family with both parents working has left little or no space for cohesion. All the members are busy trying to fulfill their goals. The children are either involved in games or studying. The parents either complete the household chores or work on their gadgets when at home. There is hardly any conversation amongst the members and if any, it is related to tasks or goals. The virtual media has taken over the tasks of humans, thereby reducing the natural conversation amongst the members of this species. People have lost their capacity to express emotions and there is hardly any expression of feelings. Both the child and the parents almost always reel under the pressure of achievement and in the quest to prove self worth. Under such circumstances, one tends to feel uprooted, disconnected, lonely and distressed.
David Brooks in his book, ‘The Social Animal’, has referred to some of the significant events of recent times – the fall of the Soviet Union, the invasion of Iraq and the economic recession. Brooks notes that the decisions are made on the assumptions that people are cold, rationalistic individuals who respond to incentives. Instead of relying on rational decisions, Brooks says, people tend to be influenced by their underlying, unconscious emotional state, which is in turn influenced by the social relationships surrounding them. Brooks emphasizes that what really matters in people’s lives today is how they relate to one another. In the current context of a nuclear family, the members usually lack emotional support as all are busy in the pursuit of striving for more. The call of the times and in the race to catch up with the high demands from various settings, social, professional, financial and domestic, one is squeezed and has lost connection to the inner self and feels helpless. Gradually, stress paramounts to an extent that it modifies and amplifies into distress leading to anxiety, depression and in extreme cases could incite substance abuse or self harm. In the exploration of materialistic achievement, one has distanced oneself from the inner self where peace and happiness gradually eludes them.
Wilhelm Wundt, a German psychologist who established the very first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879, is recognised as the formal establishment of psychology as a science distinct from biology and philosophy. In India, psychology was first introduced in Calcutta University in the Department of Philosophy in 1916 and the first generation of psychologists were people from the background of philosophy. Does this mean certain major global phenomena in the medieval times were responsible for the genesis of this branch of study stemming from the need of looking into mental health concerns of the people or, the mental health concerns existed right from the evolution of man? If one delves deeper into the history, one sees a spectrum of emotions attached to war, peace, festivities and ceremonies, which bears the testimony that people in the olden times too were aware of emotions. Considering the fact that the human brain caters for the emotions too apart from the basic animal needs like food, shelter and reproduction, one realises that psychology must have been in occurrence along with man in his onward journey from caves to artificial intelligence. One might wonder then what might have been the source of support in those days. The answer probably lies in the ancient scriptures which under the umbrella term of Dharma provided for the emotional and mental support by laying down certain teachings and principles aimed at quality life and self actualisation.
The author, with this backdrop, shall now attempt to explore the analogies between the theories and therapies of contemporary psychology to the discourses from the Dharma Vyadha Gita (‘DVG’ hereinafter). It might seem flabbergasting that how a text composed millenia ago could be relevant even today. The author tries to seek the answer by examining the discourses in the Dharma Vyadha Geeta and modern psychology.
II. DHARMA VYADHA GEETA – AN INTRODUCTION TO THE TEXT
The source text that the author has referred to in this paper is Vyadha Gita – The Butcher’s Gita, Mahabharata Vana Parva Adhyaya 210, compiled and edited by Pandit Shri Rama Ramanujachari. It refers to the Vana Parva of Mahabharta as told to Yudhisthira by Sage Markandeya (Markandeya Samasya Parva). Vyadha Gita is the name given by later authors to the Markandeya Parva in Vana Parva KMG section (Kishori Mohan Ganguli) in Book 3. The Vana Parva (Aranya Parva) is the third of 18 Parvas in Mahabharata. Traditionally the book has 21 sub-books and 324 chapters. The Vana Parva is the chronicle of the 12 year journey of the Pandavas in a forest where they learn life lessons and build characters. Markandeya Samasya Parva of Vana Parva offers contrasting views on traditions, rituals, knowledge, personal development, virtues and vices. It also explains the relationship between self discipline, virtues and qualities (sattva, rajas and tamas) and how these qualities enable one to achieve knowledge of the Supreme spirit and lead a life of happiness and peace.
The discourse in Dharma Vyadha Gita (DVG) is preceded by a story where the learned Brahmin Kaushika was sitting under a tree one day chanting the Vedas. A female crane sitting on a branch above defecated on him. Infuriated, Kaushika flung an angry glance at her upon which she fell unconscious from the tree and died. Kaushika, filled with remorse for being instrumental in her death, and after controlling himself, went to a nearby village on a begging round. He arrived at a certain house and a housewife told him to wait at the gate while she prepared the alms. In the meantime her husband arrived home, exhausted and hungry and she immediately set about attending him. After serving her husband, she returned to give alms. Brahmin was extremely irritated at being made to wait so long. As he chastised her for neglect, the housewife told him that Kaushika cannot kill her with his angry glances. Astonished, when he asked her how she knew about the incident, the housewife told, that he was so deficient in the knowledge of Dharma and indeed its application he would do well to pay a visit to DharmaVyadha – the butcher of Mithila and learn Dharma.
This scripture unfolds various aspects of human emotions which govern one’s behaviour and actions. It might be astounding to see, the Brahmin Kaushika, well versed in the teachings of the Veda, has abandoned his parents in the search of knowledge, got infuriated by trivial incidents caused by the bird and the housewife. The feeling of remorse at killing the bird was short-lived as he tried to threaten the house wife too. The author feels that though Kaushika was an extremely knowledgeable person yet he was perhaps unaware of his emotions, thoughts and behaviours. He tried to seek himself as an important and powerful person and wherever he felt threatened he used his power mercilessly, unaware of the destruction caused. He believed in the external display of knowledge and the power he obtained out of his learnings. Perhaps he had lost the connect with his inner self and hence was unable to extend his learnings in his day to day life. Kaushika despite his mastery over the texts, not only remained judgemental about people but also expressed them openly. To the author it seemed that for a while, he was unable to grasp the facts that an ordinary housewife or a butcher had the capacities that eluded him. Apparently the author feels he bore a deep sense of dissatisfaction and unhappiness in his mind, which at times were revealed as his exasperations.
III. ANALYSING DHARMA VYADHA GEETA VIS-A-VIS MODERN PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES
In the contemporary world the modern man, with advanced technologies, has gradually detached himself from his/her roots. Leisure has turned into luxury and man into machine and thus arises colossal expectations from self and others inciting unhappiness, anxiety, anger, frustration and depression which gradually spreads it branches into the human body and turns into physical health issues. The author, therefore, has humbly tried to explore the modern psychological concepts with reference to three eminent psychologists and their works i.e. ‘Psychoanalysis’ of Sigmund Freud, ‘The Humanistic and Person’ centered approach by Carl Rogers and ‘Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy’ (REBT) by Albert Ellis to understand the contemporary theories and therapies related to human behaviour, the causes of deviation from the normal and how to facilitate a person to lead a holistic life of happiness and joy and reach self actualisation.
A. BRIEF NOTE ON MODERN SIGMUND FREUD, ALBERT ELLIS AND CARL ROGERS’ THEORIES
Sigmund Freud, an Austrian neurologist who developed psychoanalysis, a method through which an analyst unpacks unconscious conflicts based on the free associations, dreams and fantasies of the patient. He believed that the original occurrences had been forgotten and hidden from consciousness. His treatment was to empower his patients to recall the experience and bring it to consciousness, and in doing so, confront it both intellectually and emotionally. He believed one could then discharge it and rid oneself of the neurotic symptoms. Some of Freud’s most discussed theories included: Id, ego and superego. These are the three essential parts of the human personality. The id is the primitive, impulsive and irrational unconscious that operates solely on the outcome of pleasure or pain and is responsible for instincts to sex and aggression. The ego is the “I” people perceive that evaluates the outside physical and social world and makes plans accordingly. And the superego is the moral voice and conscience that guides the ego; violating it results in feelings of guilt and anxiety.
Albert Ellis was born on September 27, 1913, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. After completing his degree, Ellis trained in psychoanalysis and initially practiced ineffectiveness. By 1956, he presented his approach that he then referred to as Rational Psychotherapy. This method stressed a more direct and active approach to treatment in which the therapist helped the client understand the underlying irrational beliefs that lead to emotional and psychological distress. Today, the method is known as rational emotive behavior therapy or REBT. Ellis’s ABC Model is a significant part of the form of therapy that he developed. REBT served as a sort of precursor to the widely known and applied Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), therapy (CBT), and the ABC Model is still commonly used as a treatment in CBT interventions. The basic idea behind the ABC model is that “external events (A) do not cause emotions (C), but beliefs (B) and, in particular, irrational beliefs (IB) do” (Sarracino et al., 2017). Further, the model states that it’s not a simple matter of an unchangeable process in which events lead to beliefs that result in consequences; the type of belief matters, and we have the power to change our beliefs. REBT divides beliefs into “rational” and “irrational” beliefs. The goal when using the ABC model in treatment is to help the client accept the rational beliefs and dispute the irrational beliefs.
Carl Rogers is widely regarded as one of the most eminent thinkers in psychology. He is best known for developing the psychotherapy method called client-centered therapy and for being one of the founders of humanistic psychology. After receiving his Ph.D., Rogers spent a number of years working in academia, holding positions at Ohio State University, the University of Chicago, and the University of Wisconsin.
It was during this time that Rogers developed his approach to therapy, which he initially termed “nondirective therapy.” This approach, which involves the therapist acting as a facilitator rather than a director of the therapy session, eventually came to be known as client-centered therapy. In 1987, Rogers was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize. He continued his work with client-centered therapy until his death in 1987. Some important theories of Rogers are:
Rogers believed that all people possess an inherent need to grow and achieve their potential. This need to achieve self-actualization, he believed, was one of the primary motives driving behavior.
Unconditional Positive Regard:
For psychotherapy to be successful, Rogers suggested, it was imperative for the therapist to provide unconditional positive regard to the client. This means that the therapist accepts the client as they are and allows them to express both positive and negative feelings without judgment or reproach.
Rogers also suggests that people tend to have a concept of their ‘ideal self’. When our self-image does not line up with our ideal self, we are in a state of incongruence. Rogers believed that by receiving unconditional positive regard and pursuing self-actualization, however, people can come close to reaching a state of congruence.
B. INTERPLAY BETWEEN DHARMA VYADHA GEETA AND MODERN PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES
Having explored the contemporary theories, the author now shall try to draw an analogy with the teachings of DVG. The author shall once again refer to the hypothetical therapeutic setup discussed at the inception of the article. It states the plight of the single adolescent with the working parents, feeling judged and unloved, unable to go to the grandma with whom she had spent her early childhood days due to the ongoing pandemic. The author shall try to revolve around this case and try to correlate. The adolescent’s initial unhappiness of being alone, unable to communicate, absence of a strong support system gradually could lead to anger, frustration and hatred for the significant others. With the feeling of being judged and not loved, the person could show aggression, feel anxious and depressed, could be revengeful or might self harm or take to addiction. The author understood that dealing with the adolescent was not enough. The parent’s behaviour too needed to be scrutinised. Being under the stress of achieving more and in pursuit of scaling the graph faster and higher to reach the material goal, they tend to forget that they have taken the duties and responsibilities of a householder for granted. Material comfort is considered to be a substitute for emotional and mental support. And it is at this juncture, discontent initiates and gradually spreads as anger, anxiety and depression, because at the end of everything one fails to recollect that humans are social beings. However hard one tries to strive to live a holistic life in a solely material world, one cannot escape the emotions. Depriving oneself from a cathartic expression of affects, thoughts and feelings, one gradually accumulates it within and an insignificant trigger could explode a volcano and attract unwanted consequences. This would give place to stress, anxiety, depression and ultimately one tends to slide down in the path of attaining the expected materialistic goal. The situation turns overwhelming and calls for immediate help.
The remedy lies in postulates of the various modern psychological therapies. All the therapies discussed here have a common agenda that is being aware of self. Carl Rogers’, humanistic approach describes a fully functional person as the one open to experience, i.e. accepting what comes along in the journey of life, one with existential living and creativity i.e. the ability to adjust and seek new experience. The fully functional person is aware of self and emotions and tends to maintain tranquility. People with unconditional positive regard for self and others and stronger sense of self worth are able to remain confident and motivated, unmoved by the changes in the external world. According to Rogers, a fully functional person doesn’t feel the need to distort or deny experiences. The acceptance of fact is crucial in the healing process. Unconditional positive regard for others indicates an appreciation of individuals regardless of their attitude. In a person centered counselling setup, the counsellor’s acceptance extends to the full range of their client’s attitudes, feelings and behaviours even when the client’s value system is completely different. When a person feels safe, it becomes easier for the person to look into the darker inner side feeling being accepted as one is. It also facilitates breaking the cycle of defensive behaviour of the client and thereby eases the path of healing. Reprimanding or bearing judgemental thoughts for others makes the latter aggressive and extra vigilant. In day to day life of householders synchrony and harmony is essential to enable one to function at highest. Human beings are fallible and none could be an exception. The acceptance of individuals as they are and maintaining flexibility of thoughts and actions helps the other person rectify, grow and trust. This aspect of human behaviour holds true not only for households but also for office, school and many other settings. It gives boundless joy to the individuals at both ends thereby booming the bond between them. On the other hand if the person is bent on fishing for the faults of others, happiness and peace eludes them as the mind is never at rest, always in search of designing distress for others and thereby purchasing the same for themselves in return. The more is the congruence between the real and the ideal self the greater is the efficacy of self actualisation. Such a person can live with truth imbibed within.
“priye nātibhṛṣaṁ hṛṣyed apriye na ca saṁjvaret |
na muhyed arthakṛcchreṣu na ca dharmaṁ parityajet.” || 31||
“cikīrśed eva kalyāyaṇaṁ śraddadhāno’nasūyakaḥ |
vasanasyeva chidrāṇi sādhūnāṁ vivṛṇoti yaḥ |
apaśyannātmano doṣān sa pāpaḥ pretya naśyati” || 43||
In chapter 1, verse 31 and 43 of DVG, state that on obtaining an object of desire one should not be elated, nor grieve immoderately at a loss. One should never feel depressed when financially challenged and never abandon the path of Dharma. A serious spiritual aspirant stops taking notes of faults of others and desires only the wellbeing of others. Those who refuse to acknowledge their own faults can never achieve happiness. The sayings are in congruence with the Humanistic approach. It says the situation keeps changing, but the one who is in touch with the inner self would be able to perceive the situation through a different lens and act accordingly.. It speaks about being in a state of balance where one is not overwhelmed by the external stimulus and always strives to contribute meaningfully to the family and society. Being in the path of Dharma implies carrying out the duties and responsibilities one needs to perform by the virtue of the roles one plays. Virtuous people are compassionate towards others.
“vedasyopaniṣat satyaṁ satyasyopaniṣad damaḥ |
damasyopaniṣat tyāgaḥ śiṣṭācāreṣu nityadā” || 7 ||
The essence of vedas is truth, the essence of truth is self control and the essence of self control is abstention from material indulgences. These are all aspects of behavior that are virtuous. To attain the real knowledge of the sacred texts one has to walk along the path of self actualisation. Chase for materialism is a vicious circle. It has no ends and once inside it is like a trap which gradually eludes one of happiness and peace. It is applicable in homes and workspaces. One must be congruent to one’s inner self and to do so a person requires self control which can only come from awareness. Self actualisation begins when the person is genuine to self and others and has been successful in lesser indulgence in materialistic happiness.
“vijñānārthaṁ manuṣyāṇāṁ manaḥ pūrvaṁ pravartate |
tat prāpya kāmaṁ bhajate krodhaṁ ca dvijasattama” || 1 ||
“tatas tad arthaṁ yatate karma cārabhate mahat |
iṣṭānāṁ rūpa gandhānām abhyāsaṁ ca niśevate” || 2 ||
“tato rāgaḥ prabhavati dveśaśca tadanantaram |
tato lobhaḥ prabhavati mohaśca tadanantaram” || 3 ||
“tato lobhābhibhūtasya rāga dveṣa hatasya ca |
na dharme jāyate buddhir vyājād dharmaṁ karoti ca” || 4 ||
“vyājena sidhyamāneśu dhaneṣu dvijasattama |
tatraiva ramate buddhis tataḥ pāpaṁ cikīrśati” || 5 ||
In chapter 5 verses 1 to 5, the butcher (vyadha) states that the people’s minds are at first bent on the acquisition of knowledge of their preferred subject. Once they’ve acquired knowledge, they indulge in their passions and desires – the frustration of which leads to anger. This is the time they are attracted towards like-minded people which could at times prove to be toxic. Such a person gradually tends to sway away from truth and tries to validate their wrong doings. They hold on to some irrational thoughts and beliefs and are totally determined on achieving it by any means, failing which they feel depressed and may try to take some extreme steps thereby compromising their happiness and joy. REBT (Albert Elis) is an approach grounded in the idea that people generally want to do well in life but at times irrational thoughts and feelings get in the way and can influence how one perceives circumstances and events – usually not for the better. In coeval times, REBT is a technique mostly used for healing anxiety, depression, anger, aggression, procrastination and guilt that hinders one achieving quality of life and reaching one’s goals. The slokas above implies that the way to lead a happy life is to remain indifferent to the extremes of emotions i.e. in a way rationalising the irrational beliefs and thoughts to move their desired subject. Once they’ve acquired knowledge, they indulge in their passions and desires – the frustration of which leads to anger.
This is one of the truths of contemporary times. The attachment towards materialist objects increases the magnitude of longing for more which has no limits. One flexes to obtain it by any means and failing spells a disaster for them. Such persons carry the burden of should, must and ought on them. Self unaware, such people tend to forget that when the possibilities of changing a situation decreases, one needs to adapt themselves according to the situation. When they fail to realise that their beliefs are irrational and impractical they fall easy prey to anxiety, stress, depression that lead to extreme suffering emotionally. At the behest of acquiring more materialistic objects one forgets the intangible, i.e. the path of eternal peace and happiness. The urge to secure additional money and power ruins the tranquility of mind and impacts the interpersonal relationship too.
In the example demonstrated at the inception of this article, the adolescent feels judged and unloved by the people she shares a bond with. She feels her gaining weight and looking awful had added to her miseries. Her parents were busy in their lives feeling they had provided enough to the child and their absence could be substantiated with money. The interpersonal relationships were at stake. The performance of the child is hampered at a crucial stage, the child experiences a vacuum with no social support, feels caged, unable to express her emotions, develops a sense of anger and disappointment towards the parents, while the parents too dispute amongst themselves, the performance at their workspace falls ultimately leading to an unhealthy environment in the home. The chase for more materialism couldn’t buy happiness in turn it proved to be the cause of all sufferings.
Verse 25 of chapter 6 states that ‘when the mind is overpowered by any one of these senses running wild, one loses the ability to reason, and becomes like a ship tossed by storms upon the high ocean’.
indriyāṇāṁ vicaratāṁ yan mano’nuvidhīyate |
tadas harate buddhiṁ nāvaṁ vāyur ivāmbhasi || 25 ||
The above slokas aptly describes the life of man in the twenty first century. One is overwhelmed with the vicious circle of anxiety, stress and frustrations arising from occupations, career, relationships, finance or the current pandemic. Freud has explained the relation between the Id, Ego and Superego with an analogy with a horse, horse rider and his father. The horse has been compared with the Id. It is the unevolved instinctive part of our brain, primitive and impulsive, responsible for the urges and the desires. The Ego is the horse rider and the rational part of our brain. It is able to guide the Id but never in full control, while the rider’s father guiding the driver is responsible for criticizing and moralising. A rider who is self aware and is in complete control over the emotions and values shall ride the horse through the storm, while the one who easily gives away in the face of challenges shall be caught in the whirlpool of the situations unable to bear the duress. With no moral guard, a person is unable to distinguish between good and evil, moral and immoral, tangible and the intangible thereby adding to their own miseries. Through one’s individual conscience, one becomes aware of the deeply held moral principles, are motivated to act upon them, and assess one’s character and behavior and ultimately one’s self against those principles. It is an inner looking, acknowledgement of one’s self or awareness of the moral principles one is committed to. The conscience that makes people feel guilt or moral anxiety, when they do a wrong thing. The facts that happen in one life are witnessed by the conscience and that can never be erased. The author tries to knit the conscience in psychodynamic perspectives (psychoanalysis) of Freud to that of antaryami (inner conscience) as stated in Vyadha Gita. In Chapter 6, verses 22 to 25 also give the same analogy of horse and horse rider.Psychoanalytic approach looks into the unconscious drives to explain human behaviour. As individuals one is aware that one may deny or accept a happening or behavior accordingly but the fact remains the truth and the witness to this is the conscience which time and again flashes the truth and again this incongruence of acceptance could lead to distress and therefore dejection and depression.
There is no end to discontentment, and contentment is the highest achievement. All work to be done with full involvement of heart, soul, mind and intellect by dedicating the work and the result to God and by sincere detached performance of the allocated duty in one’s earthly life one can without a shade of doubt become a fully illuminated spirituality. Decisions on what is Dharma under difficult circumstances should be made by sticking to that course of action which leads to the highest good of beings. People who have reached the perfect way, do not grieve, they are always mindful of the highest goal. Towards the end of the scripture the butcher advises Kaushika to return home and serve his ailing and aged parents as he saw the butcher serving his own. He said one must not abandon one’s duties and responsibilities as deep inside the conscience fully aware of the deeds keeps reminding the forgotten task which vents out as various unhealthy emotions and distorts the equilibrium and proves to be a major hurdle towards self actualisation. He also mentioned that keeping an open view about others and not judging people on any of their external merits is essential as being judgmental restricts one’s sight to look beyond the obvious and visible. One who is able to reflect the cause and effect experiences a deep connect with one’s inner self and is aware of emotions, thoughts and feelings and hence is able to visualise objects and situations from a rationalistic perspective. Such an individual remains calm in an overwhelming situation and takes action in the path of Dharma.
In conclusion, the author would attempt to highlight the striking analogies of Modern Psychology and the Dharma Vyadha Gita. The current theories and therapies and the philosophy behind them had been in practice thousands of years ago under the term Dharma. The dialogues between the Butcher and the Brahmin Kaushika behold the Dharma of the householders to ensure happiness and peace. The person who has experienced life as it has unfurled before, accepted the truth that the situation presented and reflected upon the actions and their causes has achieved self actualisation. By adhering to one’s duties and responsibilities, being open to experiences and believing in existentialism one is able to congregate healthy thoughts and emotions. Challenges and changes are part of life in this world and evolution suggests adaptation of the new in a conducive way and The Vyadha Gita has it all. It not only throws light on the ideal that one might try to reach, but also suggests paths to achieve it to lead a serene, contented and mindful life. The concurrent theories and therapies too are aimed at the same. The ego and superego, the unconditional positive regard, the techniques in REBT, are in a direct or indirect way related to the verses of the Vyadha Gita. The author feels Hinduism through its scriptures has unlatched the sphere of Philosophy and Psychology under the designation of Dharma, which indicates the duties and responsibilities of an individual directed towards self awareness and reflection to reach self actualisation and remain tranquil at every situation that life has to offer.
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