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An Analysis of the Rāgamālika Neñjinilniṟaindiḍum


Abstract

Rāgamālika(-s), as the very name suggests are compositions which have more than one rāga. Although the minimum number of rāga-s for a rāgamālika is said to be four, there are ones in which there are three rāga-s too. For instance, the dāsarapada of Purandaradāsa, Yādavarāyabṛndāvanadoḷu, is in three rāga-s namely, Basantbahār, Sindubhairavi and Durgā in Āditāla.

Neñjinilniṟaindiḍum is a twelve rāgarāgamālika composition in Āditāla. The sāhitya is composed by Śrī N S Cidambaram and the composition is set to music by Śrī T M Tyāgarājan. The speciality of this rāgamālika is that all the rāga-s have the name Rañjani as a prefix or a suffix. For instance, Janarañjani, Śivarañjani. The other special feature is the inclusion of some rāga-s like Guharañjani, Svararañjani, to mention a few, which are rare rāga-s. These rāga-s do not have many compositions to get an inside view of the rāga.

The attempt in this paper would be to analyze the rāga-s in this rāgamālika. The intent is to study both, the rāgalakshaṇa in the different lakshaṇagranta-s and the sañcāra-s in compositions, in vogue to discern patterns of change, if any in the melodic movement of the rāga(-s). The rāga-s occur in the rāgamālika for a duration of one āvartana of sāhitya and one āvartana of ciṭṭasvara. And, hence the most telling phrases of the rāga would be visible in these two āvartana-s.

Introduction

Rāgamālika(-s), as the very name suggests are compositions which have more than one rāga. In other words a mālika, or garland or rāga-s. RāmasvāmiDīkshita, father of MuddusvāmiDīkshita, is referred to as RāgamālikaCakravarti. He is also credited with composing perhaps the longest composition in Karnāṭakasaṅgītam, the ashṭottaraśatarāgatālamālika.[1]

As far as the minimum number of rāga-s for a rāgamālika is concerned, it is said to be four, however, there are compositions in which there are three rāga-s too. For instance, the dāsarapada of Purandaradāsa, Yādavarāya is in three rāga-s namely, Basantbahār, Sindubhairavi and Durgā in Āditāla. An example for a four rāga composition would be the Rañjanimāla, composed by ŚrīTañjāvūrŚaṅkaraiyyar in the rāga-s Rañjani, Śrīrañjani, Megharañjani and Janarañjani in Āditāla. In both the aforementioned rāgamālika-s, each section is set to arāga.

The Rañjanimāla is an example of a composition originally composed as a rāgamālika. It is also an example of a rāgamālika interspersed with ciṭṭasvara-s. Yādavarāya is an example of a composition set to the rāgamālika format later on, or what is referred to as a converted rāgamālika. Incidentally, there are no ciṭṭasvara-s in the later.

The navarāgamālikavarṇam, Valaci, is an example of a tānavarṇam set to the rāgamālika format consisting of nine rāga-s. Whilst Sāmiyaiaḻaittōḍivā is an example of a padavarṇam in eight rāga-s, then there is also the very famous pallavi of the rāgam-tānam-pallavi format

‘Śaṅkarābharaṇanaidurbārukkuaḻaittōḍivākalyāṇi’

Here the names of the rāga-s have been very cleverly woven into the sāhitya.

Ārabhimānam, composed by TiruvārūrRāmasāmiPiḷḷai is yet another composition in which the names of the rāga-s have been dexterously woven into the sāhitya. There are ten rāga-s in this composition. Another composition in which the names of the rāga-s are woven into the sāhitya is Neñjinilniṟaindiḍum set to twelve rāga-s. The attempt in this paper is to analyze this composition.

Purpose of the Paper

The purpose of this paper is to study and analyze the rāga-s in the rāgamālika composition, Neñjinilniṟaindiḍum.[2] There are a few rare rāga-s included in this rāgamālika. The attempt is to study the sañcāra-s of the rare rāga-s and to include references in rāgalakshaṇa-s in earlier lakshaṇagranta-s wherever possible or applicable.

Details of the Composition

Neñjinilniṟaindiḍum,[3] as mentioned above is a twelve rāga composition in Āditāla. The sāhitya is composed by Śrī N S Cidambaram and the composition has been set to music by Śrī T M Tyāgarājan. The rāga-s and their occurrence structure wise in the composition are

Pallavi

1stāvartana – Rañjani

2ndāvartana– Śrīrañjani

Anupallavi

1stāvartana– Guharañjani

2ndāvartana–Śivarañjani

Caraṇa 1

1stāvartana – Janarañjani

2ndāvartana – Mārarañjani

3rdāvartana – Manorañjani

4thāvartana – Megharañjani

Caraṇa 2

1stāvartana – Śrutirañjani

2ndāvartana – Svararañjani

3rdāvartana – Budarañjani

4thāvartana – Cittarañjani

Some of the other characteristic features of this composition are that

  • the names of all the rāga-s end with the suffix ‘rañjani’
  • there is a vilomaciṭṭasvara of one āvartana each for every four rāga-s. That is, after the pallavi and the anupallavi, the rāga order in the ciṭṭasvara is in the reverse order
  • Śivarañjani
  • Guharañjani
  • Śrīrañjani
  • Rañjani

after the first caraṇa, it is in the order

  • Megharañjani
  • Manorañjani
  • Mārarañjani
  • Janarañjani

after the second caraṇa, it is in the order

  • Cittarañjani
  • Budarañjani
  • Svararañjani
  • Śrutirañjani

– there is a return back to the pallavi at the end of the above mentioned vilomaciṭṭasvara-s.

– of the twelve rāga-s, Rañjani, Śrīrañjani, Śivarañjani, Janarañjani and Cittarañjani are rāga-s that are oft heard. Of these Cittarañjani is one in which there is one very popular composition of Sadhguru Tyāgarāja, Nādatanumanisham. There are a few other compositions too,[4] but all of them have been composed in the 20th century.  

– the other seven rāga-s are not quite so common. 

A Note on Saṅgītakalānidi Śrī T M Tyāgarājan[5]

TMT sir, as he as referred to, was born into family boasting of a musical lineage. His father MahāliṅgamPiḷḷai was a well-known mṛdaṅgist of his times. His ancestors were vidvān-s in the Baroda court. After receiving initial initiation into music from his father, TMT sir went on to receive advance training from SaṅgītaKalānidhi, SemmaṅguḍiŚrīnivāsaAyyar. For his achievements in the field of Carnatic music, he was bestowed with a number of titles/awards, which include

SaṅgītaKalānidhi – The Music Academy, Ceṉṉai

SaṅgītaNāṭak Academy – The SaṅgītaNāṭak Academy

SaṅgītaCūḍāmaṇi – The KrishanGanaSabha, Ceṉṉai

Kalaimāmaṇi – The Government of TamiḻNāḍu

However, the biggest award he received perhaps is the respect and appreciation of the musicians of his time. Furthermore, a number of musicians like KVN, MLV and MS learnt and rendered in concerts compositions tuned by him.

T M T sir is credited with composing the music for a number of pieces that are presently very popular. He has set to music Tiruvempāvai-s, Tiruppāvai-s, the ashṭalakshmistotram-s, to mention a few, apart from the compositions of a few other composers in rare rāga-s. He composed a number of varṇam-s, tillāna-s and kṛti-s too. His explorative forays in music also included composing ciṭṭasvara-s for many kṛti-s of various composers.

 A Note on Śrī N S Cidambaram

 Śrī N S Cidambaram was a poet who has penned the lyrics for a number of compositions. Some of his works include[6]

  • Icaikkaṉikaḷ (Icaippāḍalgaḷ)
  • PāḍumGītamKētkudu (IṉṉicaipPāmalargaḷ)
  • TamiḻicaipPāḍalgaḷ

A number of his compositions are sung by accomplished musicians. Some of them are[7]

  • AyyaCaraṇamAyyappaCaraṇam
  • KōlamayilĒrumKumaranaiKaṇḍāyō
  • NīdāntuṇaiNīlāmbari
  • MurugāNīVaravēṇḍum
  • KaruṇaimadiTavaḻum

T M T Sir and N S Cidambaram Connect

T M T sir has composed the music for a number of compositions by Śrī N S Cidambaram. Of the many, the rāgamālikaNeñjinilniṟaindiḍum is a grand composition. T M T sir set the composition to music and interspersed the sāhitya with beautiful ciṭṭasvara-s.

A Note on the Sāhitya

The rāgamālikaNeñjinilniṟaindiḍum,[8] with the sāhitya in Tamiḻ, is a twelve rāga one. The rāga-s have the term ‘rañjani’ as a suffix. The name of the rāga is dexterously woven into the sāhitya. The first part of the sāhitya is in the form of a praise of the ‘rāga’.

NeñjinilniṟaindiḍumRañjani – the one who literally fills the heart                                                (one who makes everyone think again and again )

KoñjiḍumkumaranmagiḻGuharañjani – the one who delight                                                    Muruga who is dear to all

BōgamaḻaipoḻiyumMegarañjani– the one ensures that there is a                                            shower (abundance) of good

 The poet, N S Cidambaram’s knowledge of the intricacies of Karnāṭakasaṅgītam comes to light here. He has ferreted out the different ‘rañjani-s’ to suit the sāhitya perfectly.

 Popular Rāga-s in this Rāgamālika

 As mentioned earlier too, rāga-s Rañjani, Śrīrañjani, Śivarañjani,Janarañjani and Cittarañjani are rāga-s which are heard often. Rañjani, Śrīrañjani and Janarañjani are those that have a number of compositions. They are included in Karnāṭakasaṅgīta concerts as the main or the ‘sub-main’ piece, as it is popularly referred to. In other words, the four aspects of manodharmasaṅgīta, ālapana, neraval, kalpanasvara and tānam are presented for these rāga-s.

Cittarañjani is a nishādantyarāga. Nādatanumaniśam, a composition of Tyāgarāja is a well known one. There are a few more, but most of them are by contemporary composers.[9]

Rare Rāga-s in this Rāgamālika

A discussion on the not so common rāga-s in the composition follows. In the order of occurrence, the first one is Guharañjani.

Guharañjani

Guharañjani is a janya of the twenty-eight melakartaHarikāmboji. It is has vakra phrases in both the ārohaṇa and avarohaṇa,[10] which is

s r2 s m1 p d2 n3

ṡ n2 d2 n2 p m1 g3 s

The accomplished Karnāṭaka musician, late Śrī R K Śrīkaṇṭhan in a prelude to his rendition of the kṛti, navāvaraṇasampūjyē,[11] refers to the avarohaṇa as

ṡ n2 d2 p m1 g3 s

He also says that r, g, d and n are the rāgachāyasvara-s. R and d and, m and n are vādi-samvādisvara-s. He says ārohaṇa is vakra and in the avarohaṇa r is varjya. However he sings the first line of the pallavi of the kṛtinavāvaraṇa thus

p d n ṡ    ; ṡ n    d , n ,             p , ;  |

navāvaraṇasam

The second saṅgati is thus

p d n ṡ    ; ṡ n    d n ṡ ṙ    ṡ n d n  |p m g s   r , s , | ; ṡ n   d n  || p m

navāvaraṇasampūjye         am               ba

The phrase ṡ n d n p m should be noted occurring twice. For a movement to the tārasthāyi, ṡ n d n ṡ ṙ phrase is used. Which conforms to the ārohaṇa.

HemaRamanathan’s[12] scholarly work titled, Rāgalakshaṇasaṅgraha, in which she has compiled details of rāga-s from as many as twenty-four lakshaṇagranta-s between the periods 1550-1904 does not make a mention of Guharañjani.

There are, it appears only two compositions of MuttaiyyāBāgavatar in this rāga.[13]Madhav believes that although rāga might have been known earlier it was MuttaiyyāBāgavatar who gave shape to the rāga.[14] One of the compositions is navāvaraṇa and the other is ikanētāḷajālanurā. In his rendition of this composition, T N Sēshagopālan sings phrases that confirm to the ārohaṇa-avarohaṇain a short ālāp.[15] However he also seems to use the phrase g p m g s ,.

T M T Sir commences with a phrase typical of the rāga‘d , n d , n , p’ –

; , d     , n d ,     n , p ,      m p m g | s , r s         , m ;  |

koñjiḍumku ma    ran  ma    giḻgu ha     rañ

The ciṭtasvaram commences cleverly with ‘r s m ,’ – the ārohaṇam is – ‘s r s m ,’. The same can be seen at ‘guha’ too. Instead of applying the ārohaṇam as it is, he has chosen to do with a twist.

Mārarañjani

Mārarañjani is the twenty-fifth melakartarāga, a not so oft heard one. The ārohaṇa and avarohaṇa[16] are

s r2 g3 m1 p d1 n1

ṡ n1 d1 p m1 g3 r2 s

There are compositions in this rāga by Tyāgarāja, KōṭīśvaraAyyar, Dr M Bālamuraḷikṛshṇa, SuddhānandaBārati and R K Padmanābhan. There is a varṇam by NallanChakravarthy Murthy.[17] There is also another composition Śivaśaktiyutambhaje, composer not known till this paper went for publication.[18] Both interestingly and a bit puzzling though, S Rajam, mentions in a prelude to the composition of KōṭīśvaraAyyar, Mālāgiṉēṉ, that if should be sung in madhyamaśruti as that composition has no sañcāra-s beyond madhyasthāyi ‘n’. That is a bit rare considering that this is a melakartarāga. Typically melakartarāga-s are not limited tosañcāra-s within ‘d’ or ‘n’.[19]

Ramanathan[20] mentions this rāga being described in three texts, namely,

Sangrahacūḍāmaṇi (SCud)

Saṅgītasārasaṅgrahamu (SSS)

Mahābharatacūḍāmani(MBC)

The first text, Sangrahacūḍāmaṇi refers to it by the name Śaradvati, a ragāṅgarāga. It is the equivalent to Mārarañjani in the Dīkshita school. The composition Śarāvatitaṭavāsini is in this rāga, which is referred to as Śarāvatirāga incidentally.

Since this rāga is a melakarta it is also seen in the seventy-two melakartarāgamālika of MahaVaidyanātaAyyar.[21]However the handling of the rāga in the melakartarāgamālika and in the Rañjanirāgamālika are quite different. Both are of short durations of sāhitya and ciṭṭasvara-s though. The vivāditvam is not very evident in the former. Why that is so is perhaps a question of another paper to analyze and answer with specific reference to the handling of the vivādimelakarta-s. In Neñjinilniṟaindiḍum, the phrase in the first drutam, the vivāditvam can be observed

| ; p ,    p  d n , |

cāramāyviḷaṅgiḍummārarañ

and in the ciṭṭasvara portion

| dd , n   n , d p| ……. ||

Manorañjani

There are three Manorañjani-s mentioned by Sambamoorthy.[22] The first is the one that is the fifth mela according to the rāgāṅgarāga classification. Ramanathan mentions Manorañjani as being described in five texts.[23] Of these, Rāgalakshaṇa of Mudduvēṅkaṭamakhi (RL-MV) and Saṅgītasampradāyapradarshiṇi (SSP) of SubbarāmaDīkshita describe the Manorañjani as the rāgāṅgarāga. Three other texts namely, SCud, MBC and Rāgalakshaṇa (RL), and secondvariation mentioned by Sambamoorthy describes the rāga as a janya of the 5thmelakarta, Mānavati. In all though the ārohaṇa and avarohaṇa are stated as

s r1 m1 p d2 n3

ṡ n3 d2 p d2 m1 g1 r1 s

The third variation of the rāga mentioned by Sambamoorthy is classified under the twenty-second melakarta, Kharaharapriya, respectively. Both the second and the third versions of the rāga seem to have been described in the Saṅgītasvaraprastārasāgaramu (SSPS) of NādamuniPaṇḍitar.

The one in Neñjinilniṟaindiḍum is a janya of Mānavati. The ārohaṇa and avarohaṇa[24] are

s r1 m1 p d2 n3

ṡ n3 d2 p m1 g1 r1 s

Dr M Balamuralikrshna in a recording sings the avarohaṇa of this rāga without the ‘d’.[25] He specifically makes a mention of the ārohaṇa and avarohaṇa, thus,

ṡ d2 p m1 g1 r1 s

There are two compositions it appears in this rāga. One is by Tyāgarāja, Aṭukārādanipalkanu. Balamuralikrshna sings this composition without the ‘n’ in the avarohaṇa. There are a many artists whose renditions can be heard[26] and most of them sing it with the ‘n’ in the avarohaṇa. The kālapramāṇa of Balamuralikrshna rendition is also quite slow. In the renditions of the other musicians, the kālapramāṇa of the kṛti is madhayama to duritakāla and in the other by KalyāṇiVaradarājan, Vananidhikanyakāmbhajāmi the kāla is madhyama.[27]The other composition is Bālāmbikēpāhi in catuśraMaṭya of Dīkshita in rāgāṅgarāgaManorañjani.

RL-MV mentions shaḍja as the grahasvara while SCud and RL mention shaḍja as the graha, amśa and nyāsasvara.

T M T sir’s approach to this rāga in Neñjinilniṟaindiḍum is slightly slower than Aṭukārādani version. It is more like the Bālāmbikēpāhi. There are two version of this composition. One is with less gamaka[28] and the other gamaka-s. The expanse of the rāga seems to be captured in total

; m p    , d n ,     ṡ  , ;    ṙ , ṙ , |   ; ṁ ġ   ,  ṙ     ṡ ,   |  ; ṡ n d ,    n , ṡ , ||

pōrguṇatyāgapugaḻ ma no        rañjani

In the ciṭṭasvaram the ‘p m g r s’ phrase comes at the end. But the crowning glory appears to be ‘ṙ ;ṡ ; n ; d ;’.

Śrutirañjani

There are it appears three versions of Śrutirañjani. The SCud, SSS, MBC and RL describe the rāga as the janya of the sixty-first melakarta, Kāntāmaṇi. There is another one that is a nishādantyarāga, a janya of the fifty-fifth melakarta, Śyāmalāṅgi.[29]However, the variety of Śrutirañjanithat is in Neñjinilniṟaindiḍum is one that is a janya of the thirty-sixth melakarta, Calanāṭṭai. The ārohaṇa and avarohaṇa according to Saṅgītasvaraprastārasāgaram is,[30]

s r3 g3 p d3 n3

ṡ p m1 g3 s

There is a variation in the avarohaṇa as given in Rāgakōśam and mentioned in RāgaPravāham, thus[31]

ṡ n3 p m1 g3 s p

In Neñjinilniṟaindiḍum, the rāga is as mentioned in SSPS. Until this article went for publication, a kṛti in this variety of the rāga could not be located. Here too in just anāvartana of the sāhitya, the sañcāra of the rāga in its entirety can be observed. A clever saṅgati can also be observed at

1stsaṅgati

; gg     , s      s  ,    r , ;    ; g , |

śruti      mu ḍina

2ndsaṅgati

; gg     , s      s  ,    p m g s     r , g , |

śruti      mu ḍina

And, the ciṭṭasvara paints another colour of the rāga, thus.

p d , d     n , n ṡ    , p , p    m  m g s  |  r , ;   ; ṙ ,  |  , ġ , ṁ    ġ ṡ p , || m g s

The svara commences with the second half of the arohaṇasañcāra, in which the vivādisvara-s can be seen. ‘p , p m m g s’ is the avarohaṇasañcāra. This is followed by ‘r,’ traversing from the madhya to the tārasthāyi. The svara concludes with matching phrases in the tāra and madhyasthāyi.

Svararañjani

Three varieties of Svararañjani classified under the melakarta-s Naṭabhairavi, Kharaharapriya and Kalyāni, are listed in Rāgapravāham.[32]Additionally, a rāga by the name Surarañjani is included in Rāgapravāham.[33] However it is classified under the thirty-sixth melakarta, Calanāṭṭai. In Neñjinilniṟaindiḍum, the rāga is a janya of Kharaharapriya.[34] The ārohaṇa and avarohaṇa according to SSPA[35] is

s r2 g2 m1 d2 n2

ṡ n2 p m1 g2 m1 r2 s

Again the rāga has been encapsulated in the sāhitya. The ciṭṭasvara is like an exploration of the different combinations possible within the dictates of the rāga thus,

m d n ṡ   , n d n   ṡ n p m   g m r s  |  r , g m   d n ṡ n  |  p m g m   r s r g ||

Budarañjani

The rāgaBudarañjani[36] is a janya of the twenty-ninth melakarta, Śaṅkarābharaṇa. It arohaṇa and avarohaṇa is mentioned in Rāgapravāham[37] thus

s r2 g3 m1 p ṡ

ṡ n3 p m1 g3 m1 r1 s

T M T sir has managed to bring out the rāga in a melodious manner within the rather tumultuous dictates of the rāga with clever and telling use of kārvai-s. A play with svara and kārvai-s can be spotted in the ciṭṭasvara

m g m r    ; s ,    , r s r   g m p m | p ; ṡ   ;

 Megharañjani

Megharañjani, also known as Megharañji is a janya of the fifteenth melakarta, Māyāmālavagaula, having the ārohaṇa and avarohaṇa

s r1 g3 m1n3

ṡ n3 m1g3 r1 s

Prof Sāmbamūrti, makes a note of a MuddusvāmiDīkshitakṛti in this rāga, Veṅkateśvaraeṭṭappabhūpatim while also saying that this is a rain producing rāga.[38] Incidentally the notation of this composition is given in the book compiled and edited by T K GovindaRao, Compositions of MuddusvāmiDīkshitar.[39]

Rao, refers to another composition, that of MaisūruVāsudēvācārya, Smarabhūmisutādipam, set in Āditāla in Samskṛta.[40] This rāga is the third in the Rañjanimāla composed by TañjāvūrŚaṅkaraiyyar.

Ramanathan, mentions seven lakshaṇagranta-s describing this rāga and its lakshaṇa, namely,

Rāgalakshaṇamu of Śāhajī

Saṅgītasārāmṛta or Tulaja

Rāgalakshaṇa of Mudduvēṅkaṭamakhi

Saṅgrahacūḍāmaṇi of Gōvinda

Saṅgītasārasaṅgrahamu of Tiruvēṅkaṭakavi

Mahābharatacūḍāmaṇi

Rāgalakshaṇa

All the lakshaṇagranta-s concur with the ārohaṇa and avarohaṇa mentioned above. The sañcāra-s of the phrase are given in Rāgalakshaṇamu of Śāhajī and Saṅgītasārāmṛta of Tulaja. To collate the description of the rāga in the above works, this rāga is an upāṅgaauḍavarāga with Saḍja as the grahasvara.

In Neñjinilniṟaindiḍum, the first part of the sāhitya the ‘m, g , m n ;’. The attractive part is the slide from tārasthāyi ‘ṡ’ to madhyasthāyi ‘s’. This is like a mimic of the rain. In the ciṭṭasvara the phrase ‘m g r s’ is seen in both the tāra and madhyasthāyis-s.

Conclusion

The twelve rāgarāgamālika is a beautiful composition, the sāhitya by Śrī N S Cidambaram with the dhātu by Śrī T M Tyāgarājan. The rāga-s Rañjani, Śrīrañjani, Śivarañjani, Janarañjani and Cittarañjani are those that are heard often. The other seven are not so oft heard. The attempt in this paper has been to analyze the not so familiar rāga-s and trace their history briefly. Rāga-s like Guharañjani, Śrutirañjani, Svararañjani andBudarañjani.

The rāgaMārarañjani has a few compositions by different composers. Manorañjani too has a few compositions, Aṭukārādani being the most common one. Megharañjani can be seen in the third section of the Rañjanimāla of TañjāvūrŚaṅkaraAyyar too.

The handling of rāga-s like Śrutirañjani, Svararañjani and Budarañjani which are more scale based by T M T sir brings to light his thought process as far as composing the dhātu is concerned. With in the short duration of anāvartana of sāhitya and svara, he has used

  • The kārvai (-s) to enhance the rāga
  • different combinations of svara-s
  • the vivāditvam,
  • play with sthāyi-s
  • irregular sañcāra-s with great dexterity.

The phrases are well within the dictates of the rāga without compromising on the rāgabhāva. The felicity with sāhitya of the poet N S Cidambaram is also brought to light.  There are also different versions of rāga-s with the same name.

Bibliography

Chidambaram, N S, “NavagrahaNallanjali, by N S Cidambaram,” MusicResearchLibrary, accessed July 23, 2021, http://musicresearchlibrary.net/omeka/items/show/1583.

Dhandapani, M N &Pattammal, D, “Raga Pravaham: Index to Carnatic Ragas, by M N Dhandapani& D Pattammal – 1991,” MusicResearchLibrary, accessed July 23, 2021, http://musicresearchlibrary.net/omeka/items/show/517.

MahaVaidyanathayyar, RamasvamiAyyar&Anayya, “Melaragamalika of MahaVaidyanathayyar and Kirtanas of RamasvamiAyyar and Anayya, 1903,” MusicResearchLibrary, accessed July 22, 2021, http://musicresearchlibrary.net/omeka/items/show/1920.

Narayanaswami, Dr P P, “Ragamalika Compositions in Carnatic Music – Part 1”, Special Features,  www.carnatica.net, http://www.carnatica.net/special/ragamalika.htm, accessed on 20th July, 2021

Purushottaman, Suguna, “Ragamalikas”, http://www.nadasurabhi.org/articles/36-ragamalikas?format=pdf, accessed on 20th July, 2021

Ramanathan, Hema, “Rāgalakshaṇasaṅgraha”, pub.by N Ramanathan, Chenna, 2004, First Ed.

Rao, B Subba, “Raganidhi, A Comparative Study of Hindustani and Carnatic Ragas”, Vol.2, pub.by The Music Academy Madras, Madras, 306, T.T.K. Road, Madras, 600014, 1993

Rao, B Subba, “Raganidhi, A Comparative Study of Hindustani and Carnatic Ragas”, Vol.1-4, pub.by The Music Academy Madras, Madras, 306, T.T.K. Road, Madras, 600014, 1993

Rao, T K Govinda, comp. &ed., “Composition of MuddusvāmiDīkshitar”, Ganamandir Publication, Chennai, India, 600020, 1997, First Ed.

Sambamoorthy, P, “A Dictionary of South Indian Music and Musicians, Vol.III (L-N), pub. by the Indian Music Publishing House, Madras 600001, 1971, First Ed.

Sambamoorthy, P, “A Dictionary of South Indian Music and Musicians, Vol.II (G-K), pub. by the Indian Music Publishing House, Madras 600001, 1959, First Ed.

Sambamoorthy, P, “A Dictionary of South Indian Music and Musicians, Vol.I (A-F), pub. by the Indian Music Publishing House, Madras 600001, 1984, Second Ed.

[1]http://www.carnatica.net/special/ragamalika.htm, retrieved on 20th July, 2021

[2] I must thank my music teacher, Smt. Mangalam Shankar, a disciple of Śrī T M Tyāgarājan. I learnt this composition from her. She also shared the notation as she had copied it down from T M T sir. She has also been very kind enough to discuss and verify doubts that arose frequently as I wrote this paper.

[3] To listen to an authentic rendition of this compositions, see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6_9vuVmVHlo, retreived on 21stJuly, 2021. It is sung by Smt. Mangalam Shankar, who is a disciple of Śrī T M Tyāgarājan.

[4] For a list of other compositions in Cittarañjani see rasikas.org

[5] This is taken from a yet to be published paper, that I presented for the International Webinar Series on Traditions of Indian Classical Dance and Music, Feb 2021, conducted by the Department of Indian Music, University of Madras. The paper was titled, An Analysis of CiṭṭaSvara-s Composed for Kṛti-s of Various Composers by SaṅgītaKalānidhiŚrī T M Tyāgarājan.

[6] These works are among those listed on the last page of NavagrahaNallañjali, https://www.dropbox.com/s/1v56801ah68smmc/BkTm-CidambaramNS-navagraha-nallanjali-1964-0115.pdf?dl=0, retreived on 23rd July, 2021

[7]http://lyricsraaga.com/devotional/muruga-nee-varavendum-lyrics-murugan-devotional-song-tms/, retrieved on 23rd July, 2021

[8] For sāhitya see https://www.karnatik.com/c9356.shtml, retrieved on 23rd July, 2021

[9] See list at https://www.rasikas.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=3255, retreived on 23rd July

[10] The details of the rāga-s referred from Raganidhi, Vol 2, p.94

[11]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=us_p_oabDjI, retrieved on 21st July, 2021

[12]p.888-90, HemaRamanathan, Rāgalakshaṇasaṅgraha

[13] See http://karnatik.com/ragasg.shtml#guharanjani, accessed on 20th April, 21

[14]Madhav, http://www.carnaticcorner.com/articles/ekaraga_krithis.htm, retrieved on 21 July’21

[15]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-v2w5xEmzDE, retrieved on 21st July, 2021

[16]p.50, A Dictionary of South Indian Music and Musicians, Vol.III

[17]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EPhwK34AHzU, retrieved on 22nd July, 2021

[18] M S Sheela can be heard rendering this composition at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ZLngbmlxIU, retrieved on 22nd July, 2021

[19] Of course notwithstanding Nādanāmkriya or Navroj. Point to note is that such rāga-s are different from Māyāmālavagaula or Śaṅkarābharaṇam.

[20] p. 857, Rāgalakshaṇasaṅgrahamu

[21]https://www.dropbox.com/s/esud1va2hz20bq5/BkTeTm-Visvanathayyar-mELarAgamAlikA-mahA-vaidyanAthayyar-1903-xrx-0127.pdf?dl=0, retrieved on 22nd July, 2021

[22]p.49, A Dictionary of South Indian Music and Musicians, Vol.III

[23]pp.855-856, Rāgalakshaṇasaṅgrahamu

[24]p.135, Raganidhi, Vol.3

[25]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X0O4qA6OqUg, retrieved on 23rd July, 2021

[26] See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O0KsQABqGRI, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kshh9VTWKZs, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EWouqNObBPE, to just mention a few, retrieved on 23rd July

[27]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2zCaInszVzk, retrieved on 23rd July, 2021

[28] Both the versions can be heard on – https://guruguha.org/balambike-pahi-manoranjani/, retrieved on 23rd July, 2021

[29]p.217, as mentioned in RāgaPravāham, according to R RKesavamurthi’sRagakosam

[30]p.107, Raganidhi, Vol.IV& p.179, RāgaPravāham

[31]p.179, RāgaPravāham

[32]p.47, Rāgapravāham.

[33]p.180, Rāgapravāham. The rāga is listed as Sururañjani in p.180, perhaps a typo.

[34] Until this paper went for publication, a kṛti in this rāga could not be verified.

[35]p.131, Rāgapravāham.

[36] Until the time of publication of this article, a composition in this rāga could not be located.

[37]P.158, as mentioned in PalaiYazhi, a work of B M Sundaram.

[38]p.59, A Dictionary of South Indian Music and Musicians, Vol.III

[39]see p.56

[40]p.152, Raganidhi, Vol 3

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