The premise for Indian dramaturgy and theoretic is found within the multi-disciplinary śastra-ic literature of Sanskrit tradition, of which Bharatamuni laid the fundamentals in his treatise, Nātyaśāstra. In this extraordinary literary work, Sanskrit language forms the backbone that acts as the vessel carrying the universal truth. In the periphery of Indian Arts, śastra is not just a record of few theories, it is a thorough documentation of a well-developed science of applied arts, and it is a pathway towards the revelation of the Indian Arts in its metaphysical form. Thus, śastra is always found within the triad of: Jnāna (wisdom), Achāra (practicing methodology) and Vichāra (analysis). The tradition of Sanskrit was founded upon the precise algebraic combination and is considered to be the first mathematical language by modern scientists. As a result, śastra is the science whose mathematical language is Sanskrit and to understand this science various theorems and principles are to be discerned to reach the conclusion. These theorems and principles are codes of the Sanskrit language that require precise explanation and interpretation from various angles of Philosophy and existing living traditions for the young practitioners to understand and value the basis of Indian interrelational aesthetic theories, science and religious and philosophical practices. The lack in these studies comes from the inability to relate between practice and doctrinal guidance. Most of the Indian Arts are developed on the basis of self-interpretation of living traditions, ritualistic practices and inherited knowledge. But with the passage of time the existing education system embedded within the cultural context suffered multiple blows due to foreign invasion, colonization and contemporary paradigm shifts in socio-politico-economic plethora. Śastra provides an approach to analyze all the actions as per the guidelines based on practice and tradition. In this case, Bharata not only documents the guidelines of a practice but he also indicates the philosophical root of such practices. Śārirabhinaya as a practice is a method of expressing any character’s sentiment through various body movements creating a language for the body along with dialogues and music. Through this method, Bharata in his subtle ways explained the relationship of the macro-microcosmic elements present within this artistic practice. The various movements of the body create pockets or cavities or chasms of physical space which ultimately relates to the all-pervasive space that is required for any kind of universal creation. These body movements on a microcosmic level are sequential and time-bound. These sequential movements have a direct relation to the macrocosmos where time is universal and movements are all-pervasive. Indian Arts and aesthetics derive its metaphysics from the universal creation where the human physicality (including mind) is equated with physical energy of the cosmos. In the Indian context, various disciplines of arts and philosophy comes from the originating root of culture and hence, it became difficult to relate to the educative crux of the Śastra, which are the symbolic verbalization of Indian cultural acumen.
The following works of the eminent scholars have shown the path towards the root of Indian Art and Aesthetics and its interrelatedness.
- Kapila Vatsyayan (1997)1 stated that Indian dance movement is not just a creative movement but it is founded upon the Ancient Indian metaphysics. But her conclusions were drawn upon the movements of only one specific Desi form, BharatNātyam.
- Vidya Niwas Misra2 in a seminal volume (2003) while explaining the concept of Space/Deśa stated the various zones of Raṇgmanch or stage and how it is defined and measured by movement but he did not identify the physical body as Space/Deśa.
- Premlata Sharma3 in a conference proceeding, which was later published as an article (2003), defined time and its manifestation in general terms but did not specify it in terms of articulated movements.
- Sandhya Purecha (2010)4 as a part of her research discussed on Kalāsa Karana in a publication but did not clearly state the relation of Time and Space in the light of Karana & Śārirabhinaya.
Karana is primarily perceived as a separate unit/subject differentiated from the integrated dramaturgical practice. The aim is to understand the fundamental theory upon which Karana was developed. Karana was only applied as an extension to various Desi forms but that limited its utilization only to dance and not as an instrument for Śārirabhinaya. But Karana is instrumental in Bharata’s system of dramaturgical practice also, which employs the integration of all the Art forms – dance, music and acting. Thus, it is pertinent to understand Karana as a primary element that helps to perceive Bharata’s Nātya system and not just to be employed as an ornament. Through the manifestation of Karana in Śārirabhinaya Bharata theorizes the concept of Tāndava Lakśaṇa. This Lakśaṇa may have defined the properties of Karana but it still kept few avenues open for further study. Abhinavaguptā mentioned Śiva’s samīramūrti in the benedictory verse for Tāndava Lakśaṇa. On further consultation of Indian pedagogic literature, samīramūrti is found to be employed as a totem for the Indian concept of Time and Space. Śastra provides a perspective upon which analytical thinking can be shaped. This study aims to provide a fresh perspective of Śārirabhinaya on the standpoint of its all-pervasiveness with regards to the various movements of Karana that bridges the gap between the physical and the spiritual plane. A study that explores the possibility of Nātyaśāstra-ic practices as an instrument to understand the inward journey from the gross objects to subtle elements, to shift our myopic gaze to the all-pervasiveness of Indian Arts.
This project aims at exploring the possibility of Bharata’s system as an integrated Art form with definite explanation of the elusive movements and prescribed guidelines.
- To understand the metaphysics of Bharata’s Karana.
- To shift the myopic view of Karana from not just as a dance movement but also as a methodology for trans-mundane creativity.
- To understand the underlying purpose of Bharata to integrate dance, music and acting under one Art form.
This is an exploratory study, which will be a combination of primary as well as secondary data. The following steps will help to determine the course of this study:
- Comparative study of classical literature on music, dance, art and drama.
- Field study of relics, sculptures, architecture and inscriptions will aid in understanding the various components of the structural differences with its current form existing in Desi
- Acknowledging and examining the practices surviving in living traditions, whether within the tribal communities or within traditional classical practices.
- Practical training and reconstruction of movements along with its theoretical implications that will help to determine a plausible difference that exists between practice and theories, which will act as a springboard for this study to be not limited within the boundaries of scholarly endeavours but to find probable methods to integrate within today’s classical practices.
- A thorough understanding of Sanskrit language in terms of various nomenclatures and overlapping concepts, which includes Vedic literature such as Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, Vijñānabhāsya by Motilal Shastri, Nyaya Darśan, Samkhya Darśan, Kaśmir Śaivism, Upanishads to understand its metaphysical aspect. We will take resort to Panini’s Vyākaran to decode Sanskrit words for revealing the etymological meaning.
Analysis of Bharata’s Speculative Thought on Nṛtta
“हस्तपादसमायोगो नृत्त्यस्य करणंम भवेत्।।
द्वे नृत्तकरणे चैव भवती नृत्यमातृका।“5
The above mentioned 30th verse of Bharata’s Nātyaśāstra explains the lakśana (Characteristic) of Karana through the analogy consisting of Aṇga (Major Limb), Upāṇga (Minor Limb), Chāri (Rudimentary Lower Limb Movements) and Sthānaka (Posture/Basic Stance). Thus, it is an augmentation of all the various physical features that create subtle movements and require a medium of human physicality in order to be executed. The human form is the space on which these movements find structure and shape. According to Kapila Vatsyayan, “Indian dance takes the human figure as its basic instrument of expression and applies the same method of analysis and synthesis in its technique as is seen in other Indian Arts.”6 Even though, Bharatamuni, very straightforwardly gave few guidelines for the Karana, he has limited his instructions to body parts and Nrītyamātrīkā. This seemingly simple and undecorated lakśana have few codes that are required to be unfolded to understand the innate nature of Karana or how it is formed. So, first it is important to understand the guiding principle of Nṛtta as postulated by Bharata before diving into an in-depth and comparative analysis of the above principle.
Bharatamuni provides detailed śastra-ic guidance and theories on performing arts, which embodies praxis not just a theoretical assumption. Bharata referred Nṛtta as Tāndava, a generic name for dance in aggregation. The fourth chapter of Nātyaśāstra is named as Tāndava Lakśaṇa Adhyaya wherein dance, in general terminology is identified as a non-dual element that can be categorised in two different modes of expression based on application/prayoga, Sukumār Prayoga (tender and graceful execution) and Uddhyata Prayoga (vigorous execution). The following Śloka from this chapter explains the theory on which dance is introduced as Tāndava and the systematic approach that brings in differentiation in its application.
“रेचका अङ्गहारश्च पिण्डीबन्धास्तथैव च।।
सृष्टवा भगवता दत्तास्तण्डवे मुनये तदा।
तेनापि हि ततः सम्यग् गानभाण्डवसमन्वितः।।
नृत्तप्रयोगः सृष्टो यः स ताण्डव इति स्मृतः।”7
This Śloka states that Recaka-s, Aṇgahāra-s and Pīndibhandha-s are created by Śiva and then given to the sage Taṇḍu who later systematized theses movements into a dance system with guidelines and principles known as Tāndava. The last line of the Śloka carries the karmadhāraya samāsa with the compound “नृत्तप्रयोगः” that equates Nṛtta with Tāndava. It is employed for the purpose of precision and embellishment in dramatic practice. It is actually a part of Kaishikī Vṛittī, a method of introducing Sṛiṇgara Rasa in Nātya. According to Bharata’s system of dance Tāndava it is the general category that can be manifested according to the sentiment (Bhāva) of Nātya to generate specific emotion amongst the spectators for the purpose of Rasa Niśpatti (aesthetic delight). Thus, Bharata’s system of dance is a tool to accurately manifest characteristic nuances in a dramatic practice.
Bharata has only defined the fundamental principle of Nṛtta that is manifested in the form of Karana but Abhinavaguptā has provided specific properties on the basis of Bharata’s guidance. In his commentary he has explained the peculiarity of Bharata’s Nṛtta upon which Karana is based, “तत्र करणानामङ्गहाराणां च सामान्यलक्षणं कर्तुमाह-हस्तपादेत्यादिना। क्रिया करणम्। कस्य क्रिया। नृत्तस्य। गात्राणां हस्तोपलक्षितस्य विलासक्षेपस्य। हेयोपादेयविषयाक्रियादिभ्यो व्यतिरिक्त्ता या तत्क्रिया करणमित्यर्थः।…”8, it is an ‘activity’/ kṛya termed as Karana which is characterized by the presence of grace and playfulness in these articulated movements. Moreover, in a later text, Sudhākara of Siṃhabhūpala, a commentary on Saṅgītaratnākara, further defines this kṛya as, “करणैः नृत्यतीत्युक्त्तम्। तत्र किमिदं करणमित्यपेक्षायामाह-स्यादिति। करपादादेः अवयवसमूहस्य, विलासेन; शोभया, अत्रुटद्रसा, अच्छिधमानो रसो यस्यां सा, तथाविधा क्रिया करणमित्युच्यते।…”9, it is a conscious activity/movement made by graceful joining of various limbs. These continuous and unbroken movements facilitate the wholesome experience of Rasa (“विलासेन; शोभया, अत्रुटद्रसा, अच्छिधमानो रसो यस्यां सा”). These movements reiterate Nātyaśāstra-ic principle of non-duality in Nṛtta.
In other words, Bharata’s Nṛtta known as Tāndava is manifested in the form of Karana, a particular form of articulated movements based on the physical space of a human figure that is an action identified by grace, which is to be executed in a continuous and unbroken line of movements to reflect its non-dual characteristic. This is further employed as an instrument to add precision in Abhinaya, known as Śārirabhinaya for Bharata’s system of dramatic practices. So, Bharata’s system of Nṛtta is an applicatory to tool to enhance dramatic effects for a specific purpose. This helps to create a different body language for Nātya. The purpose of Nātya is very well explained by Kalidasa10 when he refers to it as Netra-Yajña in comparison to a Vedic Yajña. Netra-Yajña is where the components, the causal nexus and the results are macroscopic or visible to the human eye. Usually, Yajña is ritualistic in nature but the workings and the results are indiscernible to the naked eye, hence, it is in a formless state or microscopic. Here, he is actually pointing to the Drishya-Phala (conspicuous benefit) of Nātya as Yajña. It can be deduced that Indian Dramatic Arts, just like any other Indian Art form is based on the metaphysics of universal truth and its purpose is to transcend from the physical plane to the spiritual plane.
Metaphysical Aspects of Karana as an Applied System by Bharata: A Tool for Transcendence
To understand the founding philosophy for the system of Nātyaśāstra-ic dance movements it is imperative to go back to the Śloka that defines Karana. The term Nrītyamātrīkā holds deeper significance than just a term for various limbs, exercises and postures. Kapila Vatsyayan stated, “Indian dance, like Indian poetry, music and sculpture, seeks to communicate universal, impersonal emotion, and, through the very medium of the human form, it transcends the physical plane: in its technique, it employs the technique of all the Indian Arts and it is impossible to comprehend the architectonic structure of this form without being aware of the complex techniques of the other arts which it constantly and faithfully employs and synthesizes…”11 Therefore, Śastra expounds the cosmic truth, which is reflected in the Indian Art forms through its practice and systems. It is important to grasp the theoretical background to realize the logic behind such a systemic practice.
The word Nrītyamātrīkā is a combination of Nrītya and Mātrīkā. Bharata used Nrītya as a synonym of Nṛtta. Mātrīkā can be found as an important concept of Indian system of philosophy across various texts.
Mātrīkā: Tantra postulates the concept of Varṇa-mālā as Mātrīkā. Abhinabhagupta identifies this Varna-mālā in Parātriṇgśīka (acc. to Kaśmir Śaivism) as Mātrīkā, the seat of creation: the originating point of universal creation. Rūdradamarudbhava Sūtra Vrīttī composed by Nāndīkeśwara further identifies the meaning of each Varṇa. The concept of Varṇa is equated with the concept of sound-vibration. For instance, the use of Mantra (reverberative chanting in adoration for a particular idol) comes under such category. The vibration released from such a Mantra creates an image within the mind, which in turn helps in the conceptualization of a definite composite unit of a structure. This is because the mind is incapable of understanding anything which has no form or body. The universe or the cosmic elements all have their specific sound on which they vibrate. NASA has recently recorded the sound of the Sun, which vibrates at a specific frequency12. This do not come as a surprise to the Indic study enthusiasts, as vibration is considered to be all pervasive and helps to provide specific characters to all matter of creation. Similarly, Mātrīkā-s are the elements or Varṇa that collectively create a Śabda, which vibrates at a specific frequency to provide a tangible structure that is reflected in the mirror of the mind. So, the Mātrīkā-s come together to form one Karana that vibrates at a specific frequency to create a particular image. Nrītyamātrīkā is the term for various elements that are combined to form a Karana. Hence, when these specific Nrityamatrika-s are joined mindfully to create a particular physical form that reverberates with a particularly unified physical energy within the performance space. A physical space is carved out to reflect a composite structure.
Karana creates an image of a form that can be understood by the joining of various Nrītyamātrīkā -s within the anatomy of a physical structure. Based on the above deduction, the two metaphysical elements that form the foundation for the concept of Karana are Vibration and Physical Space.
Vibration is a synonym for Dhvani that helps to create a language or a reverberative sound, which is released by the 108 Karanas as Aṇgadhvani. Kapila Vatsyayan said, “…the music which seems to accompany the dance is actually the life-breath of its structure and, indeed, dance interprets in movement what music interprets in sound…”13. Physical Space can be translated to Space or Akaśa, which is limited or restricted within the physical plane of a human figure. These two concepts are derived from the macrocosmic concepts of Śabda Tanmātra/Dhavni and Akaśa.
Interestingly, Abhinabhagupta, a follower of Kaśmir Śaivism, related the 36 Tattva of Śaivism to the 36 chapters of Nātyaśāstra. The Prāna (Life force/Life state) of the chapter is denoted in accordance with the 36 Tattva-s, not in any particular chronological order but on the basis of its meta-meaning. Abhinabhagupta refers Cāri as Dhvanī in the Mangalacharan of the 10th Chapter, which is a symbolic representation of the Dhvanī Tattva (theorem), in other words the concept of Śabda Tanmātra, as decoded by the commentator, himself. This opens a vast arena of Indian philosophical thought process that eventually points to the direction of an inward journey through artistic pursuits and hence, elevates it from a mere medium of entertainment. It is a displacement in terms of Space and Time; both macrocosmic and microcosmic. The vibrating Space with all the cosmic creation provides the perfect void or vacuum where creativity can be presented. Similarly, Abhinabhagupta’s perspective regarding Cāri as a symbolic representation of Dhvanī is the perfect explanation of how the human physical structure can be denoted as a Physical Space, which is created by the articulated movement of the lower limb (specially) within a specific rhythmic timing based on the Indian concept of Tāla (rhythmic sequence by which movement or music is measured).
“चारीभिः प्रसृतं नृत्तं चारीभिश्चेष्टितं तथा।
चारीभिः शस्त्रमोक्षश्च चार्यो युद्धे च कीर्तिता।।
यदेतत्प्रस्तुतं नाट्यं तच्चारीष्वेव संस्थितम्।
नहि चार्या विना किञ्चिन्नाट्येऽङ्गं संप्रवर्तते।।“14
This demarcates the use of Cāri and its application. Cāri is the basis for the structure of Karana. It is prescribed in the 10th Chapter. Surprisingly, Abhinabhagupta in this chapter evoked the Tattva of Dhvanī/Śabda Tanmātra. Dhvanī is not a word which has any specific or gross meaning, cannot be defined in tangible terms. It is a word which reflects its metaphysical character, its meaning is the reverberation released by any sound. Bharata postulated that the reverberation of the sound, which has tangible meaning attached, is expressed through the vibration created within the medium of air.
“वाय्वात्मको भवेच्छब्दः स चापि द्विविधो मतः।
स्वरवाँक्ष्चैव विज्ञ्गेयस्तथा चैवाभिधानवान्।।“15
This kind of reverberative sound only exists in the physical/materialistic world that has the presence of air in its physical form.
Any reverberation of sound requires the medium of air to manifest. Similarly, this scientific deduction is followed in the case of Cāri and Karana, where Cāri is intertwined within the properties of Karana. The complete meaning of Cāri is developed through the structural framework of Karana. The body becomes the instrument or the vehicle that carries forward the meaning associated with the Dhvanī. Likewise, the abstract or incomprehensible (Dhvanī: Tattva of Cāri) form of Cāri reaches a complete structure of a meaning through the manifestation of Karana (Vāyu: Tattva of Karana), thus, shaping a language for the physical body. Bharata following this definition of Karana, theorizes the applicatory prescription of Karana in the chapter of Vākyārthabhinaya. Karana being the language for the physical body captures the sentiments (Bhāva) of any Character and does not rely on the performer’s (Nata) own sentiments.
The mangalācharan of the 10th Chapter states:
सर्वदा ध्वनिमात्रात्मा शम्भुर्विजयतात् प्रभुः।।“16
Madhusudan Shastri in his commentary aptly explains the above benedictory verses, “तस्माद्वा एतस्मादाकाशः सम्भूतः, आकाशाद्वायुः, वायोरग्तिः, अग्नेरापः, अद्भयः पृथिवी, इत्युक्ते आकाशस्य भूमेश्र्च सम्भूतिशालित्वात् उत्पत्ति-मत्त्वात्, यमत्त्वात्, यज्जन्यं तत्कृतकमिति नियमेन स्थितिमत्त्वं नास्ति…”17. Akaśa (All-Pervasive Space) is the creation that takes place at the beginning and within it the discordant forces and energies create Vayu (Cosmic Air/atmosphere). Due to the presence of various particles and oxides in Vayu (Cosmic Air), Agni is created (Cosmic Fire), which subsequently creates Heat and in turn creates Water. All these composite elements then further combines to form the Prīthivi/Physical Plane/Materialistic Plane.
Space (Akaśa) is the origin of the all the elements that constitute the Universe. This Universe is ever-expanding, a proven theory by the modern scientists, this feature of multiplication or proliferation is a common feature of any living beings that can move and grow. But this Space is all-pervasive, all the planets and stars and the cosmos are moving and colliding: in a constant state of motion. Similarly, the Prīthivi (Earth) is also in a state of constant motion and action, so, are the living beings, but they all appearing to remain unmoved by any force. The difference between these two concepts is the factor governing action (Kṛya Śakti– creative force/power/energy). Space (Akaśa) is governed by action, which is only concerned with activity not necessarily movement – activity, which is static in nature, do not result in displacement. In other words, this action is the causality of locomotive action, the originating action that later results into a locomotive energy/force. Indian metaphysics identified this action or activity as the concept of Kṛya Śakti: the all-pervasive concept of action relative to any object (Dravya). Earth (Prīthivi) is governed by action that results in motion (Gati-Śakti– Locomotive Force/Power/Energy) and the living beings/organisms share this inherent nature. This kind of action results in displacement or movement from one point to another.
But, the question still remains, as to how this action/activity becomes an articulated movement.
- Articulated movement: The word ‘articulated’ in the Oxford dictionary means to be able to express thoughts easily and clearly. So, ‘articulated movement’ may simply mean a movement that can be expressed easily and clearly or which is intelligible. But in this context articulated movement is referred as Krīyā (action).
- Krīya: In the abovementioned Śloka defining Karana of Nātyaśāstra the word ‘भवेत्’ is a doing word, it means ‘ought to do’. To specify the action this word propagates Vīdhīlīṇg Prayoga is a formal directive that must be followed to achieve the said result. To understand this groundwork it is important to know Nyaya philosophy where the centripetal force point of Indian worldview is encapsulated. It is pertinent to know the underpinnings on the theory of Cosmic Matter (the physical existence with a particular shape) which consists of Substance (Nāma), Form (Rūpa) and Function (Kṛya). Nyaya Darśan postulates this physical world as the concentration of Dravya (Object), Guṇa (Form) and Karma (Function). Kṛya may be both static and dynamic. Here, in this context Karma and Kṛya are synonymously used but in another terminology they suffer from slight difference.
In Vedic studies and Brāhminical traditions of etymology, Yāska explains Vāyu in his Nirukta.
“वायुर्वातेः। वेतेर्वा स्याद्गतिकर्मणः। एतेरिति स्थौलाष्ठीविः। अनर्थको वकारः।
‘Vāyu (wind) is derived from (the verb) vā (to blow) or it may be derived from the verb vī (meaning to move). It is derived from the verb i (to go),’says Sthaulāsthīvī, “the letter v being meaningless’.”18
So, Vāyu literally means wind/air, it is both external atmosphere/air and the inner life-breath of the physical body. It is the second of the five elements of the physical world and considered to be the ‘fast-moving’ element. Hence, Kṛya is the elemental characteristic of Vāyu. Vāyu and Prāna are the macro-microscopic aspect of the same reality. Śrī Abhinavaguptācārya evokes the samīramūrti (wind-form) of Śiva in the benedictory verses of the fourth chapter of Nātyaśastra:
“स्वविलसैरिदं विक्ष्वं यो दर्शयति सन्ततम्।
समीरमूर्ति तं वन्दे गिरिराजसुताप्रियम।।“19
This verse celebrates the playful movement of the wind-form of Śiva. So, Vāyu is the causality of this Kṛya, which is identified as the characteristic movement of Karana.
Akaśa is the space or the vaccum, which is all-pervasive and the germination ground for creativity. The microscosmic reality of this aspect is the Physical Space or the human figure which forms the base on which creativity takes place. This concept can be related to the concept of the vacuum/cavity of the heart, known as Hṛdayaguha. The same principle is applied in the construction of garbha-gṛha of temple architectures. Ritualistically people visit the temple to worship the Supreme Being and philosophically it is the Hṛdayaguha, which is the ultimate space for the Supreme Self. Thus, the rhythmical beating of the heart is considered to be the premise for Tāla in Nātyaśāstra. Similarly, Vāyu is the locomotive causality of Kṛya that defines the characteristic of Karana as a movement. The macrocosmic Vāyu forms the microcosmic life-breathe of the physical plane. Any activity is time bound and results in displacement in terms of space. Śiva’s samīramūrti is the codification of the fundamental value of Karana as a part of dance system that is employed to add qualitative value of trans-mundane in the dramatic practice of Bharata. This concept of macro-microcosmic Space and Time forms the Prāna (life-breath) of Śārirabhinaya in Nātyaśastra. Indian Arts not only hold the value of delight and entertainment but it elevates both the practitioner and the spectator from the physical plane to the subtle plane of consciousness. This reflects a journey from the outer sphere of materialistic impulses to spiritual aspirations.
Bharata’s system of Nritta, which is an instrument for Śārirabhinaya did not just develop to be adopted as a part of dance movement inventory but as a methodology to perceive the Ultimate Truth, to understand the concept of Time and Space beyond the shackles of materialistic bindings.
- Kapila Vatsyayan, The Square and Circle of Indian Arts, Abhinav Publications, 1997
- Kalātattwakośa, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Edited by Bettina Baumer, 2003
- Sandhya Purecha, Kalāsa Karaṇas & Sthānaka-maṇḍala Bhedā, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 2010
- Nātyaśastra, Vol. IV, with the commentary Abhinavabhāratī by Śrī Abhinavaguptācārya & Manoramā, Published by Sampurnanand Sanskrit University, 2004, Pg. 520, Śloka
- Classical Indian Dance in Literature and the Arts by Kapila Vatsyayan, Foreword by Rai Krishnadasa, Sangeet Natak Akademi, New Delhi, 2007, Pg. 23.
- Movement and Mimesis, Mandakranta Bose, D.K. Publishers, 2007, Nātyaśastra, Chapter-4, Śloka 259-261, Page-110
- Nātyaśastra, Vol. I, with the commentary Abhinavabhāratī by Śrī Abhinavaguptācārya, Dr. K. Krishnamurti, Oriental Institute , Vadodara, Fourth Edition, 1992, Pg. 90, Śloka
- Saṅgītaratnākara of Śaraṇgadeva with Kalānidhi of Kallinātha and Sudhākara of Siṃhabhūpala, edited by Pandit S. Subhramanya Sastri, Vol IV-Adhyāya 7, The Adyar Library, 1953, Pg. 194
- Mālvika Agnimitram by Kālidāsa, edited by Kashinath Pandurang Param, Nirnay Sagar Mumbai, 1924, Pg. 7, Act I, Śloka
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