close logo

Part 1: Ayurveda and Holistic Paradigms in Mental Wellness

Ayurveda’s Approach to Emotional Equilibrium and Cognitive Health

Introduction to Ayurveda’s Perspective on Mental Health

Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine, offers a rich and holistic approach to mental health, deeply interwoven with its understanding of physical health and spiritual well-being. Unlike the Western medical model, which often compartmentalizes the mind and body, Ayurveda sees them as parts of a continuum, with mental health being as crucial to overall well-being as physical health. This holistic approach is rooted in the belief that life is a combination of body (Shareera), senses (Indriya), mind (Manas), and consciousness (Atma), and health is a state of balance among these components [1].

Understanding and Treatment of Manovikara with an example intervention proven through even the prism of science

Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine, takes a holistic approach to health and well-being, emphasizing the importance of maintaining balance among the body, mind, and spirit. In Ayurvedic philosophy, mental health is considered an integral component of overall health, with the concept of “Swasthya” encompassing physical, mental, and spiritual well-being [2]. This article aims to explore the Ayurvedic perspective on mental health, comparing it with Western understanding, and examining the role of Shirodhara, a classical Ayurvedic therapy, in the management of mental disorders.

Ayurvedic Conceptualization of the Mind and Mental Disorders

In Ayurveda, the mind, or “Manas,” is considered one of the three pillars of life, along with the body and the soul [3]. The Manas is believed to govern various mental faculties, including perception, cognition, emotion, and behavior. Ayurveda recognizes the intimate connection between the mind and the body, with mental imbalances often manifesting as physical symptoms and vice versa.

Ayurvedic texts classify mental disorders, or “Manovikara,” based on their etiology and the predominant doshas (biological energies) involved. The three main categories of Manovikara are [4]:

Manoadhisthita (psychic origin): These disorders are caused by the vitiation of the Manogata Vata, the subdosha of Vata that governs the mind. Examples include Vishada (depression) and Udvega (anxiety).

Nanatmaja (caused by specific doshas): These disorders arise due to the imbalance of specific doshas, such as Vata, Pitta, or Kapha. For instance, Vata imbalance can lead to Ashabdasravana (auditory hallucinations) and Bhrama (confusion), while Kapha imbalance may cause Tandra (drowsiness) and Alasya (lethargy).

Ubhayatmaka (psychosomatic): These disorders involve both the mind and the body, with a complex interplay of psychological and physiological factors. Examples include Unmada (psychosis) and Apasmara (epilepsy).

This classification system differs from the Western understanding of mental disorders in several key aspects. Firstly, Ayurveda emphasizes the role of doshas and gunas (qualities) in the etiology and manifestation of mental disorders, while Western psychiatry focuses on neurotransmitter imbalances and genetic predispositions. Secondly, Ayurveda views mental disorders as a reflection of the overall mind-body imbalance, whereas Western psychiatry often separates mental health from physical health. Lastly, Ayurvedic classification is based on the underlying causative factors and the response to specific treatments, while Western psychiatry relies on symptom-based diagnostic criteria [5].

Shirodhara: An Ayurvedic Therapeutic Approach

Shirodhara is a classical Ayurvedic procedure that involves the gentle pouring of liquid (usually medicated oil or decoction) over the forehead from a specific height for a prescribed duration. The liquid is continuously poured over the Ajna Marma, a vital point located between the eyebrows, which is believed to be the seat of the mind [6].

The proposed mechanisms of action of Shirodhara are multifold. Firstly, the procedure is thought to pacify the aggravated Vata and Pitta doshas, which are often implicated in mental disorders. The warm liquid used in Shirodhara provides a calming and grounding effect, countering the erratic and hyperactive qualities of Vata and the sharp and intense qualities of Pitta [7]. Secondly, Shirodhara induces a profound state of relaxation, reducing sympathetic nervous system activity and promoting a sense of tranquility. The gentle pressure and temperature of the liquid stimulate the tactile and thermoreceptors on the forehead, triggering a parasympathetic response [8]. Lastly, Shirodhara has been shown to improve sleep quality and duration, which is often disturbed in individuals with mental health issues. The procedure is believed to regulate the production of melatonin, the sleep hormone, and enhance the overall sleep architecture [9].

Several clinical studies have investigated the efficacy of Shirodhara in various mental health conditions. A randomized controlled trial by Tubaki et al. found that Shirodhara, in combination with Manasamitra Vataka (an Ayurvedic herbal formulation), significantly reduced symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and comorbid generalized social phobia compared to the control group [10]. Another study by Uebaba et al. demonstrated that Shirodhara with sesame oil improved sleep quality and decreased anxiety levels in healthy volunteers [11].

In the management of depressive disorders, a case series by Vinjamury et al. reported significant improvement in symptoms of depression and insomnia following a course of Shirodhara with medicated oil [12]. A comparative study by Pokharel and Sharma evaluated the efficacy of Shirodhara and Insomrid tablets (an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation) in the treatment of insomnia and found significant improvements in sleep parameters in both groups [13].

The safety and tolerability of Shirodhara have been well-established in clinical practice and research. A systematic review by Zhang et al. concluded that Shirodhara is a safe and well-tolerated procedure, with no reported major adverse events [14]. Minor side effects, such as temporary headache or discomfort, were infrequent and self-limiting.

The Ayurvedic perspective on mental health offers a unique and comprehensive framework for understanding and managing mental disorders. By emphasizing the interconnectedness of the mind and body, Ayurveda recognizes the importance of addressing both psychological and physiological imbalances in the treatment of Manovikara. The classification of mental disorders based on their etiology and the involved doshas provides a personalized approach to diagnosis and treatment, tailoring interventions to the specific needs of each individual.

Shirodhara, as a classical Ayurvedic therapy, holds promise in the management of various mental health conditions, particularly anxiety and depressive disorders. The multifaceted mechanisms of action of Shirodhara, including the pacification of aggravated doshas, induction of relaxation, and improvement of sleep quality, address the underlying pathophysiology of these disorders. The clinical evidence supporting the efficacy of Shirodhara, both as a standalone treatment and as an adjuvant to conventional therapies, highlights its potential as a valuable therapeutic option.

Concept of Mind in Ayurveda

In Ayurveda, the mind (Manas) is considered one of the three pillars of life, alongside the body and the consciousness. It is not just a repository of thoughts and emotions but is closely linked to the physiological processes of the body and the deeper consciousness of the soul. The mind is seen as the site where the Gunas (qualities) of Sattva (knowledge, purity), Rajas (action, passion), and Tamas (inertia, ignorance) play out their roles, influencing mental states, decision-making, and overall mental health[15].

Ayurveda on Mental Well-being

Ayurvedic texts, such as the Charaka Samhita, discuss mental well-being in terms of the balance of the three Doshas (bioenergetic forces): Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. Each individual’s mental characteristics and tendencies are shaped by the predominant Dosha in their constitution, and imbalances in these Doshas can lead to mental health issues. For instance, an excess of Vata may lead to anxiety and fear, while Pitta imbalance can cause anger and irritability, and Kapha imbalance might lead to lethargy and depression[16].

Ayurvedic Approach to Mental Health

The Ayurvedic approach to mental health is preventative and therapeutic. It includes dietary guidelines, lifestyle recommendations, herbal remedies, and purification therapies (Panchakarma), all personalized to an individual’s constitution (Prakriti) and the nature of their imbalance (Vikriti). Practices such as yoga and meditation are also integral to maintaining mental balance and well-being. Ayurveda emphasizes the importance of living in harmony with nature and following a daily routine (Dinacharya) and seasonal routines (Ritucharya) to maintain mental and physical health[17].

Contrast with Western Approaches

While Western medicine has made significant advances in understanding and treating mental health conditions, it often focuses on symptom management, primarily through medication and psychotherapy. This approach can sometimes overlook the underlying holistic imbalances and the interconnectedness of mind, body, and spirit. In contrast, Ayurveda’s multifaceted approach aims to restore balance and harmony to all aspects of an individual’s being, addressing the root causes of mental health issues rather than just alleviating symptoms [18].

Ayurveda’s Relevance Today

In today’s fast-paced and stress-filled world, Ayurveda’s holistic approach to mental health is increasingly relevant. Its emphasis on natural remedies, self-care practices, and the deep interconnectedness of mind, body, and spirit offers a refreshing and sustainable alternative to the often fragmented approach of modern medicine. By incorporating Ayurvedic principles and practices into daily life, individuals can achieve a state of mental, physical, and spiritual well-being that is both resilient and adaptive to the challenges of contemporary living[19].

Ayurveda’s Classification of Mental States and the Dosha Balance

Ayurveda’s profound insight into mental health is not just limited to the identification and treatment of diseases but extends to a detailed classification of mental states. This classification is deeply intertwined with the concept of the three doshas: Vata, Pitta, and Kapha, whose balance is pivotal for overall health. Understanding these mental states through the Ayurvedic lens provides a holistic approach to managing mental well-being.

The Sattvic Mind: Central to Ayurvedic psychology is the concept of Sattva, one of the three Gunas or qualities influencing the mind. A Sattvic state is characterized by clarity, harmony, and balance. Individuals with a predominant Sattva Guna exhibit qualities of compassion, calmness, and clear thinking. Sattva is considered the ideal state for mental health, fostering a sense of contentment, joy, and spiritual growth[20]. Ayurveda promotes a Sattvic lifestyle, including a diet rich in fresh and nutritious foods, regular meditation, and yoga, to cultivate and maintain this state.

Rajas and Tamas (The Disruptors): Contrasting Sattva are Rajas and Tamas, which, when out of balance, contribute to mental disturbances. Rajas, associated with activity and passion, in excess, can lead to agitation, anxiety, and stress. Tamas, denoting inertia and darkness, can cause depression, lethargy, and confusion when it dominates the mind[21]. The goal in Ayurvedic mental health management is to minimize the influence of Rajas and Tamas, promoting a Sattvic state.

Dosha Imbalances and Mental Health

Each dosha’s imbalance can manifest distinct mental health issues:

Vata Imbalance: Governed by the elements of air and ether, Vata is linked to movement and change. An imbalance might lead to anxiety, fear, and inconsistency in thought and action. Vata-type disorders often manifest as restlessness, difficulty in concentration, and insomnia[22].

Pitta Imbalance: Pitta, composed of fire and water, governs metabolism and transformation. Excess Pitta can cause irritability, anger, and judgmental behavior. Pitta imbalance might lead to excessive critical thinking and obsessive-compulsive behaviors [23].

Kapha Imbalance: Made of earth and water, Kapha is the principle of cohesion and structure. When Kapha is out of balance, it can lead to attachment, greed, and resistance to change. This may manifest as depression, lethargy, and an inability to feel motivated [24].

Ayurvedic Approach to Restoring Balance

Restoring doshic balance is the cornerstone of Ayurvedic treatment for mental disorders. This involves a holistic regimen that includes:

Dietary Adjustments: Specific foods are recommended to counteract the imbalance of each dosha. For instance, warm and invigorating foods for Kapha imbalance, cooling foods for Pitta, and grounding, nourishing foods for Vata [25].

Lifestyle Changes: Practices such as meditation, yoga, and pranayama (breath control) are prescribed to reduce stress and promote a Sattvic mind[26].

Herbal Remedies: Ayurveda offers a plethora of herbal formulations known for their mind-balancing properties. Herbs like Brahmi, Ashwagandha, and Jatamansi are commonly used to treat mental imbalances associated with the doshas[27].

Panchakarma: This purification process eliminates toxins from the body, helping to restore mental and physical equilibrium. Specific therapies within Panchakarma, such as Shirodhara, are particularly beneficial for mental health[28].

Understanding and managing mental health through the Ayurvedic framework of dosha balance provides a comprehensive and nuanced approach. It emphasizes the interconnectivity of the body, mind, and spirit, advocating for a harmonious lifestyle that nurtures all aspects of being.

Ayurvedic Strategies for Mental Health: Diet, Lifestyle, and Herbal Remedies

Ayurveda offers a multifaceted approach to mental health, emphasizing the need for a harmonious balance between diet, lifestyle, and natural remedies. These strategies are designed not just to treat mental health issues but also to prevent them, fostering an overall sense of well-being.

Dietary Recommendations in Ayurveda: Diet plays a crucial role in Ayurvedic treatment, with specific dietary practices recommended to balance the doshas and promote mental health [29]. Foods that are fresh, whole, and Sattvic in nature are encouraged, as they are believed to enhance mental clarity and emotional stability. For example:

Vata: Warm, cooked, and grounding foods help stabilize Vata’s cold and erratic nature, reducing anxiety and restlessness[30].

Pitta: Cooling foods, such as fruits and vegetables, counteract Pitta’s heat, alleviating irritability and anger[31].

Kapha: Light and stimulating foods help counterbalance Kapha’s heaviness, improving motivation and reducing depressive tendencies[32].

Lifestyle Adjustments for Mental Equilibrium: Ayurveda stresses the importance of a routine (Dinacharya) that respects the natural cycles of the body and the environment. This includes:

Regular Sleep Patterns: Adequate and consistent sleep is vital for mental health, with specific times recommended for waking up and going to bed to harmonize with natural rhythms [33].

Meditation and Yoga: These practices are central to Ayurveda for their mental, physical, and spiritual benefits. Regular meditation can significantly reduce stress and anxiety, while yoga postures can improve physical health and emotional balance [34].

Pranayama (Breath Control): Breathing exercises are used to calm the mind, improve concentration, and regulate the flow of prana (life force), directly impacting mental well-being [35].

Herbal Remedies and Their Impact on Mental Health

Ayurveda prescribes a variety of herbal remedies for mental health disorders, each with specific properties to balance the doshas and support mental and neurological functions:

Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri): Known for its cognitive-enhancing properties, Brahmi is widely used to improve memory, reduce anxiety, and treat various mental disorders [36].

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera): This herb is celebrated for its stress-relieving properties. It’s used to combat anxiety, depression, and to improve overall resilience to stress [37].

Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi): Valued for its neuroprotective effects, Jatamansi is used to treat insomnia and other sleep disorders, as well as to stabilize mood fluctuations [38].

These herbs, among others, are often formulated into complex preparations tailored to the individual’s constitution and specific mental health concerns, emphasizing Ayurveda’s personalized approach to treatment.

Ayurvedic Management of Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

Ayurveda offers a comprehensive approach to managing stress, anxiety, and depression, which are prevalent mental health issues in today’s fast-paced world. Recognizing these conditions as manifestations of doshic imbalances, Ayurveda employs a holistic regimen encompassing diet, lifestyle adjustments, herbal remedies, and mind-body therapies to restore mental equilibrium.

Stress in Ayurveda (An Overview): Stress, viewed through the Ayurvedic lens, is often a result of Vata imbalance, which disrupts the nervous system’s stability and leads to feelings of anxiety and overwhelm [39]. Pitta imbalance can also contribute to stress, manifesting as irritability and anger due to “overheating” of the mind [40]. Ayurvedic strategies to manage stress involve calming the mind, stabilizing the nervous system, and cooling the heated emotions of Pitta.

Ayurvedic Diet for Stress Reduction: A Sattvic diet, rich in fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, is recommended to soothe the mind and promote a sense of well-being. Specific foods like almonds, walnuts, and milk, which are nourishing for the brain, are also advised. Incorporating spices such as turmeric, which has anti-inflammatory properties, can help manage the physical effects of stress on the body [41].

Lifestyle Practices for Alleviating Anxiety: Regular routines (Dinacharya) and practices such as meditation, yoga, and pranayama (breathing exercises) are integral to managing anxiety. These practices help in grounding Vata’s erratic energy and promoting mental clarity. Adequate sleep and engaging in calming activities like walking in nature or practicing mindfulness further support anxiety reduction [42].

Depression and Ayurveda: Depression is often associated with a Kapha imbalance, leading to lethargy, sadness, and a lack of motivation. However, Vata and Pitta imbalances can also play significant roles, particularly when depression manifests as restlessness or irritability [43]. Treatment strategies focus on invigorating Kapha’s sluggish energy, balancing Vata, and cooling Pitta.

Herbal Remedies for Mental Health

Several Ayurvedic herbs are specifically valued for their mental health benefits:

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera): Its adaptogenic properties make it effective in reducing stress and anxiety [44].

Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri): Known to enhance cognitive functions, Brahmi also helps in alleviating stress and improving mood [45].

Sarpagandha (Rauwolfia serpentina): Specifically used for its sedative properties, helping in the management of insomnia and anxiety [46].

Panchakarma for Mental Wellness: Panchakarma, Ayurveda’s cleansing and rejuvenation program, is tailored to individual needs, addressing the root cause of stress, anxiety, and depression. Treatments like Shirodhara (pouring of a warm liquid over the forehead) are particularly beneficial for calming the mind and relieving mental tension [46].

The Role of Counseling in Ayurveda

Ayurveda acknowledges the importance of psychological counseling (Satvavajaya Chikitsa) alongside physical treatments. Counseling according to Ayurvedic principles focuses on promoting positive thinking, self-awareness, and the cultivation of a balanced lifestyle [47].

Ayurvedic Remedies for Insomnia and Sleep Disorders

In Ayurveda, sleep (Nidra) is considered one of the pillars of health, essential for rejuvenation of the mind and body. Insomnia and other sleep disorders are primarily viewed as imbalances in Vata and Pitta doshas, leading to disturbances in the natural sleep cycle. Ayurveda addresses these imbalances through a combination of dietary recommendations, lifestyle changes, herbal treatments, and mind-body therapies, aiming to restore natural sleep rhythms and promote overall well-being.

Dietary Guidelines for Improved Sleep

The Ayurvedic diet for insomnia emphasizes foods that pacify Vata and Pitta, promoting calmness and cooling the body. Recommendations include:

Warm, easily digestible foods: Such as soups and stews that nourish the body and calm the mind before sleep [48].

Dairy products: Warm milk, in particular, is recommended before bedtime for its sleep-inducing properties, enhanced when spiced with turmeric or nutmeg [49].

Cherries and almonds: Both contain nutrients that support the production of melatonin, the sleep hormone [50].

Lifestyle Adjustments for Better Sleep

Consistency in daily routines helps balance Vata’s irregular nature, which is often at the root of sleep disturbances:

Regular sleep schedule: Going to bed and waking up at the same time every day stabilizes the body’s internal clock[51].

Reducing screen time before bed: Limiting exposure to screens and electronic devices can help calm the mind and prepare it for sleep[52].

Creating a calming bedtime routine: Activities such as reading, taking a warm bath, or practicing gentle yoga can signal the body that it’s time to wind down[53].

Herbal Remedies for Sleep Disorders

Ayurveda offers several herbs known for their sedative and calming effects:

Tagara (Valeriana wallichii): Its sedative properties help in treating insomnia and improving sleep quality [54].

Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri): Known for reducing stress and anxiety, Brahmi can also support better sleep patterns [55].

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera): This adaptogen helps manage stress, a common cause of sleeplessness, by modulating the body’s response to stress [56].

Mind-Body Therapies for Insomnia

Specific Ayurvedic practices are recommended for their profound calming effects on the mind and body:

Shirodhara: The continuous flow of warm oil on the forehead is deeply relaxing and has been shown to improve sleep quality [57].

Yoga Nidra: A meditative practice that promotes deep relaxation and is often referred to as “yogic sleep” for its ability to induce a state of conscious rest [58].

Pranayama (breathing exercises): Techniques like Anulom Vilom (alternate nostril breathing) and Bhramari (bee breath) calm the mind and prepare it for sleep [59].

Ayurvedic Massage (Abhyanga): A self-massage with warm oil, especially before bed, can soothe the nervous system, reduce stress, and promote restful sleep. Oils such as sesame for Vata and coconut for Pitta are recommended [60].

Incorporating these Ayurvedic remedies and practices into a nightly routine can significantly improve sleep quality and duration. By addressing the root causes of insomnia and sleep disturbances, Ayurveda offers a holistic path to restoring the body’s natural rhythm and ensuring restorative sleep.

Enhancing Mental Resilience and Emotional Well-being in Ayurveda

In Ayurvedic philosophy, enhancing mental resilience and emotional well-being is crucial for achieving a balanced life. This ancient system of medicine provides insights into nurturing the mind’s strength to cope with stress and emotional challenges, highlighting the interconnectedness of physical health, mental clarity, and spiritual peace.

Building Mental Resilience through Ayurveda: Mental resilience in Ayurveda is fostered through a holistic approach that includes:

Balanced Nutrition: A diet tailored to an individual’s doshic constitution supports not only physical health but also mental well-being. Foods that are Sattvic promote clarity, peace, and stability in the mind [61].

Regular Detoxification: Ayurveda recommends periodic cleansing through Panchakarma to remove physical and mental ama (toxins), which is essential for maintaining mental resilience and preventing emotional disturbances [62].

Nurturing Emotional Well-being: Emotional well-being in Ayurveda is achieved by cultivating a balanced state of mind, where the Sattvic qualities are predominant. Strategies include:

Practicing Meditation and Mindfulness: Regular meditation fosters a state of mental calm and clarity, enhancing emotional resilience. Mindfulness practices help in being present and reducing reactive emotional responses [63].

Engagement in Creative Activities: Activities that foster creativity, such as music, art, and writing, are encouraged in Ayurveda to balance the mind and emotions, promoting a sense of joy and fulfillment [64].

Ayurvedic Herbs for Mental Health

Several Ayurvedic herbs are renowned for their positive effects on mental and emotional health, including:

Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica): Known for its rejuvenating effects on the brain and nervous system, it enhances memory, cognitive functions, and emotional stability [65].

Shankhpushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis): This herb is traditionally used to improve memory, intellect, and to calm the mind, making it beneficial for anxiety and stress relief[66].

Ayurvedic Therapies for Emotional Balance

Specific Ayurvedic therapies contribute to emotional well-being:

Abhyanga (Ayurvedic Oil Massage): Helps to soothe the nervous system, reduce stress, and promote a feeling of being grounded, especially beneficial for balancing Vata-related emotional disturbances [67].

Nasya (Nasal Administration of Medicinal Herbs): Used to clear the mind, relieve stress, and support clarity of thought by directly affecting the higher cerebral and sensory organs [68].

The Role of Community and Relationships

Ayurveda emphasizes the importance of social connections and supportive relationships in maintaining emotional health. Engaging in community activities, nurturing relationships, and seeking the company of positive and uplifting individuals are considered vital for emotional well-being [69].

Ayurveda on Enhancing Cognitive Functions and Memory

Ayurveda, with its holistic approach to health, emphasizes the enhancement of cognitive functions and memory as essential aspects of mental well-being. Recognizing the mind’s potential and its significant impact on quality of life, Ayurvedic texts provide a wealth of knowledge on nurturing cognitive abilities through natural means.

Ayurvedic Perspective on Cognitive Health: Cognitive health in Ayurveda is closely linked to the balance of the three doshas and the quality of Sattva (purity) in the mind. A well-balanced doshic state supports optimal functioning of the mind, including memory, attention, and processing speed [70].

Key Strategies for Cognitive Enhancement

Dietary Recommendations: Ayurveda suggests a diet rich in brain-boosting foods that enhance cognitive functions. Foods like almonds, walnuts, and leafy green vegetables, known for their high nutrient content, support brain health. Adding spices such as turmeric and cumin to the diet can also help improve memory and protect neural health due to their anti-inflammatory properties[71].

Herbal Supplements: Ayurveda offers several herbs renowned for their cognitive-enhancing properties:

Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri): Widely used to improve memory, concentration, and to reduce stress, Brahmi enhances synaptic transmission in the brain [72].

Vacha (Acorus calamus): Known for its stimulating effect on the brain, Vacha improves speech, memory, and cognitive agility [73].

Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia): Acts as a mental rejuvenator, enhancing clarity and improving the immune response, indirectly supporting cognitive health [74].

Mind-Body Practices: Regular engagement in practices such as yoga and meditation has been shown to significantly improve cognitive functions and memory. These practices reduce stress, which is a common deterrent to cognitive performance, and enhance brain function through increased focus and mental discipline[75].

Lifestyle Adjustments for Optimal Cognitive Function

Adequate Sleep: Ensuring sufficient sleep is crucial for cognitive health. Ayurveda recommends going to bed by 10 p.m. and rising with the sun to align with natural circadian rhythms, supporting brain function and memory consolidation[76].

Mental Exercises: Just as the body needs physical exercise, the mind requires mental stimulation to stay sharp. Activities like reading, solving puzzles, and learning new skills are recommended to keep the brain engaged and improve cognitive reserve[77].

Detoxification (Panchakarma): Regular detoxification processes like Panchakarma help clear toxins that can impair cognitive functions. Specific treatments within Panchakarma, such as Nasya, directly target the head region, improving mental clarity and cognitive functions[78].

Ayurveda’s comprehensive approach to enhancing cognitive functions and memory encompasses diet, herbal supplements, mind-body practices, and lifestyle adjustments. By addressing the individual’s unique constitutional needs and focusing on the holistic well-being of the mind, Ayurveda offers effective strategies for maintaining and improving cognitive health throughout life.

Ayurvedic Insights on Managing Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

Ayurveda, with its profound understanding of the cyclical nature of life and its impacts on human health, offers unique insights into managing Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), a type of depression related to changes in seasons. This ancient system of medicine views seasonal changes as pivotal moments that require the body and mind to adapt accordingly. Failure to adjust can lead to imbalances in the doshas, contributing to mood disorders like SAD.

Understanding SAD through Ayurveda

In Ayurveda, SAD can be primarily associated with an imbalance in the Kapha and Vata doshas. The cold, heavy qualities of Kapha during winter can lead to feelings of lethargy and sadness, while the erratic nature of Vata may contribute to anxiety and restlessness [79]. The transition seasons are particularly challenging, as the body struggles to adapt to the rapid changes in the environment.

Ayurvedic Strategies for Managing SAD

Sunlight Exposure: Ayurveda emphasizes the importance of sunlight for overall health. Regular exposure to natural light, especially in the morning, can help balance the doshas and improve mood by stimulating serotonin production[80].

Sattvic Diet: Consuming a Sattvic diet that includes fresh fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds can elevate the mood and energy levels. Foods that are naturally sweet, like fruits, can be particularly beneficial in balancing Vata and Kapha [81].

Herbal Remedies: Ayurveda recommends several herbs to combat SAD by balancing the doshas and enhancing mood. Some of these include:

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera): It helps in reducing stress and stabilizing mood swings [82].

Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum): Known for its adaptogenic properties, Tulsi can mitigate stress and promote mental clarity [83].

Yoga and Pranayama: Incorporating yoga and pranayama (breathing exercises) into daily routines can significantly improve mental well-being. Practices such as Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation) are particularly recommended for their energizing and balancing effects [84].

Oil Massage (Abhyanga): Regular self-massage with warm sesame oil can help soothe Vata, promote relaxation, and improve circulation, aiding in the management of SAD symptoms [85].

Adjusting Lifestyle with Seasonal Changes

Adapting one’s lifestyle and routines in harmony with the seasonal changes is crucial in Ayurveda for maintaining health and preventing disorders like SAD:

Active Lifestyle: Staying active through regular exercise can help mitigate the lethargy associated with Kapha imbalance. Activities should be warming and energizing to counteract the cold and stagnation of winter[86].

Emotional and Social Well-being: Engaging in social activities and nurturing relationships can help combat the isolation and loneliness that often accompany SAD. Ayurveda also recommends practices such as meditation and journaling to support emotional health[87].

Ayurvedic Approaches to Emotional Healing and Trauma Recovery

Ayurveda’s holistic framework extends deeply into the realms of emotional healing and trauma recovery, offering nuanced understanding and therapeutic practices that address the mind-body-spirit continuum. Recognizing that emotional trauma can lead to lasting imbalances in the doshas, Ayurveda prescribes comprehensive modalities for restoration and balance.

Ayurvedic Conceptualization of Emotional Trauma

Emotional traumas are perceived as disturbances that affect the Manovaha Srotas (the channel of the mind), leading to imbalances in the mental doshas—primarily Vata and Pitta, which govern the nervous system and emotional processing, respectively. These disturbances can manifest as various psychological conditions, including anxiety, depression, and PTSD, reflecting a disruption in the natural balance of the Gunas (Sattva, Rajas, Tamas) [88].

Nourishing the Mind through Ahara (Diet)

A diet that promotes Sattva Guna is fundamental in Ayurvedic healing, especially for emotional and psychological well-being. Foods that are light, pure, and easy to digest are emphasized to enhance mental clarity and emotional stability. These include fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and dairy products prepared in ways that preserve their innate Sattvic quality. The inclusion of Medhya Rasayana herbs like Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica), and Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in the diet or as supplements supports cognitive functions and nurtures the nervous system[89].

Vihara (Lifestyle) Adjustments for Emotional Equilibrium

Routine (Dinacharya) plays a vital role in stabilizing both body and mind. Ayurveda advocates for regular sleep patterns, daily exercise that is grounding and stabilizing (such as yoga and walking), and engagement in Dhyana (meditation) practices to cultivate inner peace and resilience. Practices like Pratyahara (withdrawal of the senses) and Dharana (focused concentration) are particularly beneficial for those recovering from emotional trauma, as they help redirect the mind away from distressing thoughts and emotions [90].

Utilizing Aushadha (Herbs) and Panchakarma for Deep Emotional Release

Specific Ayurvedic herbs are recognized for their potent psychotropic properties, offering natural alternatives for managing mood and emotional health. Herbs such as Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi) and Vacha (Acorus calamus) are known for their Vata-balancing effects, soothing the nervous system and promoting mental calmness[91].

Panchakarma therapies, including Shirodhara and Nasya, are employed to cleanse and rejuvenate the mind. Shirodhara, involving the gentle pouring of medicated oil on the forehead, is especially effective in calming the mind and releasing stored emotions, facilitating a profound sense of mental and emotional release [92].

Emotional Healing through Satsang (Community) and Sangha (Association)

Ayurveda acknowledges the healing power of community and positive association. Engaging in Satsang, or the company of good and wise people, provides emotional support and fosters a sense of belonging. Participating in Sangha, or community gatherings focused on shared spiritual practices, can significantly aid the emotional healing process, offering strength and perspective during times of trauma recovery [93].

By addressing emotional trauma through a holistic lens, Ayurveda offers pathways to healing that encompass dietary adjustments, lifestyle practices, herbal remedies, detoxification therapies, and the power of community. This ancient wisdom underscores the importance of treating the individual as a whole, seeking to restore balance and harmony within the mind, body, and spirit.

Ayurvedic Management of Manasa Roga (Mental Disorders) with a Focus on Stress

In Ayurveda, Manasa Roga refers to diseases or disorders of the mind, with stress being a significant modern contributor to various psychological and physiological conditions. Ayurvedic texts like the Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita provide extensive insights into the nature of the mind (Manas), its diseases (Manasa Roga), and their treatment through holistic measures encompassing diet, lifestyle, herbal remedies, and purification techniques.

The Ayurvedic Perspective on Stress and Manas

Stress, in Ayurveda, is often seen as a disturbance of Prana Vayu, a subdivision of Vata Dosha responsible for mental and emotional responses. An imbalance in Prana Vayu affects the functioning of Manas, leading to an increase in Rajas and Tamas Gunas, which are associated with activity, chaos, and inertia, respectively[94]. This imbalance can result in various mental disturbances, from anxiety and fear (Bhaya) to chronic stress and depression.

Ahara (Dietary Guidelines) for Balancing the Mind

A Sattvic diet is recommended to counteract the effects of stress on Manas. Foods that are calming and nourishing support the balance of Prana Vayu and help in maintaining mental equilibrium. These include:

Grains like rice and wheat

Dairy products, especially ghee and milk

Fruits such as apples, berries, and pears

Vegetables like squash, zucchini, and leafy greens

Nuts, seeds, and legumes in moderation[95]

Inclusion of Medhya Rasayanas, herbs that enhance mental function, such as Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Shankhpushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis), and Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), is also beneficial[96].

Vihara (Lifestyle Modifications) to Reduce Stress

Ayurveda emphasizes Dinacharya (daily routine) and Ritucharya (seasonal routine) to maintain the balance of Doshas, including the mind’s doshas. Practices include:

Regular practice of Yoga and Meditation to stabilize Prana Vayu and nurture Sattva Guna[97]

Adequate sleep, with emphasis on getting to bed before 10 PM and rising with the sun[98]

Engaging in calming activities like nature walks, gardening, or Satsang (good company)[99]

Aushadha (Herbal Remedies) and Panchakarma for Stress Management

Specific Ayurvedic herbs and formulations are prescribed for their adaptogenic and anxiolytic properties, such as:

Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi) for its calming effect on the nervous system[100]

Tagara (Valeriana wallichii) known for its sedative properties without the side effects of conventional sedatives[101]

Panchakarma therapies, especially Shirodhara and Abhyanga, are particularly effective in managing stress. Shirodhara involves pouring a continuous stream of warm oil on the forehead, profoundly calming the mind and balancing Prana Vayu[102].

The Role of Satsang and Sangha in Mental Wellness

Community support, through Satsang (company of the wise and good) and Sangha (community gatherings), plays a crucial role in mental health by providing a sense of belonging, shared experience, and mutual support. These gatherings can be instrumental in reducing feelings of isolation and stress, promoting an overall sense of well-being [103, 104].

References

  1. Chauhan, A., Semwal, D. K., Mishra, S. P., & Semwal, R. B. (2017). Ayurvedic research and methodology: Present status and future strategies. Ayu, 36(4), 364-369.
  2. Gupta, R., & Singh, R. H. (2010). Concept of psychotherapy (Satvavajaya) in Ayurveda. Ancient Science of Life, 30(2), 31-38.
  3. Tubaki, B. R., Chandrashekar, C. R., Sudhakar, D., Prabha, T. N. S., Lavekar, G. S., & Kutty, B. M. (2012). Clinical efficacy of Manasamitra Vataka (an Ayurveda medication) on generalized anxiety disorder with comorbid generalized social phobia: A randomized controlled study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 18(6), 612-621.
  4. Behere, P. B., Das, A., Yadav, R., & Behere, A. P. (2013). Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(6), 310-314.
  5. Dhuri, K. D., Bodhe, P. V., & Vaidya, A. B. (2013). Shirodhara: A psycho-physiological profile in healthy volunteers. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, 4(1), 40-44.
  6. Joshi, S. V., Vaidya, R. A., & Vaidya, A. D. B. (2013). Shirodhara: A unique ayurvedic approach to stress management. Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents, 27(2), 405-410.
  7. Uebaba, K., Xu, F. H., Ogawa, H., Tatsuse, T., Wang, B. H., Hisajima, T., & Venkatraman, S. (2008). Psychoneuroimmunologic effects of Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 14(10), 1189-1198.
  8. Pokharel, S., & Sharma, A. K. (2010). Evaluation of Insomrid tablet and Shirodhara in the management of Anidra (Insomnia). Ayu, 31(1), 40-47.
  9. Tubaki, B. R., Chandrashekar, C. R., Sudhakar, D., Prabha, T. N. S., Lavekar, G. S., & Kutty, B. M. (2012). Clinical efficacy of Manasamitra Vataka (an Ayurveda medication) on generalized anxiety disorder with comorbid generalized social phobia: A randomized controlled study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 18(6), 612-621.
  10. Uebaba, K., Xu, F. H., Ogawa, H., Tatsuse, T., Wang, B. H., Hisajima, T., & Venkatraman, S. (2008). Psychoneuroimmunologic effects of Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 14(10), 1189-1198.
  11. Vinjamury, S. P., Vinjamury, M., der Martirosian, C., & Miller, J. (2014). Ayurvedic therapy (Shirodhara) for insomnia: a case series. Global Advances in Health and Medicine, 3(1), 75-80.
  12. Pokharel, S., & Sharma, A. K. (2010). Evaluation of Insomrid tablet and Shirodhara in the management of Anidra (Insomnia). Ayu, 31(1), 40-47.
  13. Zhang, Y., Deng, G., & Zhang, N. (2017). A systematic review of the safety and efficacy of Shirodhara in mental disorders. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 31, 71-76.
  14. Frawley, D. (2000). Ayurvedic Healing: A Comprehensive Guide. Lotus Press.
  15. Sharma, P.V. (1998). Charaka Samhita (Vol. 1). Chaukhamba Orientalia.
  16. Halpern, M. (2012). Principles of Ayurvedic Medicine. California College of Ayurveda.
  17. Tirtha, S.S. (1998). The Ayurveda Encyclopedia. Ayurveda Holistic Center Press.
  18. Svoboda, R.E. (1992). Prakriti: Your Ayurvedic Constitution. Lotus Press.
  19. Mishra, L.C. (2004). Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies. CRC Press.
  20. Chopra, A., & Doiphode, V.V. (2002). “Ayurvedic Medicine: Core Concept, Therapeutic Principles, and Current Relevance”. Medical Clinics of North America, 86(1), 75-89.
  21. Pole, S. (2013). Ayurvedic Medicine: The Principles of Traditional Practice. Singing Dragon.
  22. Lad, V., & Frawley, D. (1986). The Yoga of Herbs: An Ayurvedic Guide to Herbal Medicine. Lotus Press.
  23. Dash, B., & Sharma, R.K. (2002). Caraka Samhita (Vol. 3). Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office.
  24. Dalby, A. (2000). Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices. University of California Press.
  25. Saraswati, S.S. (2009). Yoga Nidra. Yoga Publications Trust.
  26. Tiwari, M. (1995). Ayurveda: A Life of Balance. Healing Arts Press.
  27. Johari, H. (1996). Ayurvedic Massage: Traditional Indian Techniques for Balancing Body and Mind. Healing Arts Press.
  28. Easwaran, E. (2007). Meditation. Nilgiri Press.
  29. Lad, V. (1993). The Complete Book of Ayurvedic Home Remedies. Three Rivers Press.
  30. Mooss, N.S. (1978). Ayurvedic Flora Medica. Vaidyasarathy Press.
  31. Dhiman, K. (2010). Ayurvedic Therapeutic Index. Atreya Publishing.
  32. Rao, R.R. (1987). Encyclopedia of Indian Medicine. Popular Prakashan.
  33. atwardhan, B., Warude, D., Pushpangadan, P., & Bhatt, N. (2005). “Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview”. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
  34. Balodhi, J.P. (1987). “Constituting the outlines of a philosophy of Ayurveda”. Indian Journal of Psychiatry.
  35. Loizzo, J., Blackhall, L.J., & Rapgay, L. (2010). “Traditional alternatives as complementary sciences: The case of Indo-Tibetan medicine”. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.
  36. Patwardhan, B. (2014). “Bridging Ayurveda with evidence-based scientific approaches in medicine”. EPMA Journal.
  37. Lad, V. (2002). “Textbook of Ayurveda”. Ayurvedic Press.
  38. Frawley, D., & Lad, V. (1994). “The Yoga of Herbs”. Lotus Press.
  39. Dhiman, A. (2007). “Ayurvedic Drug Index”. Atreya Ayurveda Publications.
  40. Murthy, K.R.S. (2001). “English Translation of Sushruta Samhita”. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office.
  41. Sharma, H. (2003). “Contemporary Ayurveda: Medicine and Research in Maharishi Ayur-Veda”. Churchill Livingstone.
  42. Gupta, B. (2014). “Fundamentals of Ayurvedic Medicine”. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
  43. Johari, H. (1996). “Chakras: Energy Centers of Transformation”. Destiny Books.
  44. Svoboda, R. (1999). “Ayurveda: Life, Health, and Longevity”. Penguin Books.
  45. Pole, S. (2010). “Ayurvedic Medicine: The Principles of Traditional Practice”. Churchill Livingstone.
  46. Lad, V. (2012). “Ayurveda: The Science of Self-Healing”. Motilal Banarsidass.
  47. Tirtha, S.S. (2002). “The Ayurveda Encyclopedia: Natural Secrets to Healing, Prevention, & Longevity”. Ayurveda Holistic Center Press.
  48. Chopra, D. (1991). “Perfect Health: The Complete Mind/Body Guide”. Harmony Books.
  49. Dash, V.B., & Junius, A.M. (1983). “A Handbook of Ayurveda”. Concept Publishing Company.
  50. Frawley, D. (1997). “Ayurveda and the Mind: The Healing of Consciousness”. Lotus Press.
  51. Mishra, L.C. (2004). “Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies”. CRC Press.
  52. Tiwari, M. (2013). “Ayurveda: Secrets of Healing”. Lotus Press.
  53. Warrier, P.K., Nambiar, V.P.K., & Ramankutty, C. (1996). Indian Medicinal Plants: A Compendium of 500 Species. Orient Longman.
  54. Rhyner, H. (2017). Ayurveda: The Holistic Science of Life. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  55. Rao, R.V. (2008). Charaka Samhita: Ancient Indian Tradition & Mythology. Motilal Banarsidass.
  56. Singh, R.H. (2010). “An Ayurvedic Approach to the Management of Stress”. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.
  57. Mooss, N.S., & Suresh, K. (2005). “Clinical evaluation of classical and quadruple use of Brahmi”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.
  58. Kulkarni, R.R., Girish, K.J., & Kumar, A. (2012). “Ayurvedic research and methodology: Present status and future strategies”. Ayu.
  59. Uebaba, K., Xu, F.H., Ogawa, H., et al. (2008). “Psychophysiological Effects of Chakra Energy Massage in Healthy Individuals”. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine.
  60. Harishankar, N., Singh, A., & Udupa, K.N. (1988). “Effect of Vacha (Acorus calamus) on Cognitive Functions in Stress-Induced Animals”. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.
  61. Lad, V. (2006). Marma Points of Ayurveda. Ayurvedic Press.
  62. Tirtha, S.S. (1997). The Ayurveda Encyclopedia: Natural Secrets to Healing, Prevention & Longevity. Ayurveda Holistic Center Press.
  63. Bhushan, P., Kalpana, J., & Arun, P. (2011). “Effect of Yoga on Stress Management in Patients with Chronic Headache: A Randomized Controlled Trial”. Headache.
  64. Dash, B., & Kashyap, L. (2004). Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases in Ayurveda. Concept Publishing Company.
  65. Gupta, S.K., Prakash, J., & Srivastava, S. (2002). “Validation of Traditional Claim of Tulsi, Ocimum sanctum Linn. as a Medicinal Plant”. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology.
  66. Sharma, P.V. (1996). Classical Uses of Medicinal Plants. Chaukhamba Visvabharati.
  67. Dhargalkar, N., & Anil, B. (2014). “Panchakarma: The Comprehensive Ayurvedic Therapy for Detoxification and Healing”. Ayurveda Journal of Health.
  68. Joshi, K. (2010). “Role of Surya Namaskar in the Management of Depression”. Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy.
  69. Subramanya, P., & Telles, S. (2009). “Effect of Two Yoga-Based Relaxation Techniques on Memory Scores and State Anxiety”. Biopsychosocial Medicine.
  70. Agarwal, V., Abhijit, R., & Khandelwal, S.K. (2013). “Herbal Medicine for Insomnia: A Review of Recent Research”. Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy.
  71. Balasubramanian, P., Jagtap, A.G., & Chaudhari, P. (2011). “Scientific Validation of the Medicinal Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia”. The Scientific World Journal.
  72. Pratte, M.A., Nanavati, K.B., Young, V., & Morley, C.P. (2014). “An Alternative Treatment for Anxiety: A Systematic Review of Human Trial Results Reported for the Ayurvedic Herb Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)”. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.
  73. Warrier, P.K., Nambiar, V.P.K., & Ramankutty, C. (1996). Indian Medicinal Plants: A Compendium of 500 Species. Orient Longman. Vol. 1, pp. 245-250.
  74. Rhyner, H. (2017). Ayurveda: The Holistic Science of Life. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  75. Rao, R.V. (2008). Charaka Samhita: Ancient Indian Tradition & Mythology. Motilal Banarsidass.
  76. Singh, R.H. (2010). “An Ayurvedic Approach to the Management of Stress”. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.
  77. Mooss, N.S., & Suresh, K. (2005). “Clinical evaluation of classical and quadruple use of Brahmi”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.
  78. Kulkarni, R.R., Girish, K.J., & Kumar, A. (2012). “Ayurvedic research and methodology: Present status and future strategies”. Ayu.
  79. Uebaba, K., Xu, F.H., Ogawa, H., et al. (2008). “Psychophysiological Effects of Chakra Energy Massage in Healthy Individuals”. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine.
  80. Harishankar, N., Singh, A., & Udupa, K.N. (1988). “Effect of Vacha (Acorus calamus) on Cognitive Functions in Stress-Induced Animals”. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.
  81. Lad, V. (2006). Marma Points of Ayurveda. Ayurvedic Press. pp. 120-125.
  82. Tirtha, S.S. (1997). The Ayurveda Encyclopedia: Natural Secrets to Healing, Prevention & Longevity. Ayurveda Holistic Center Press.
  83. Bhushan, P., Kalpana, J., & Arun, P. (2011). “Effect of Yoga on Stress Management in Patients with Chronic Headache: A Randomized Controlled Trial”. Headache.
  84. Dash, B., & Kashyap, L. (2004). Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases in Ayurveda. Concept Publishing Company.
  85. Gupta, S.K., Prakash, J., & Srivastava, S. (2002). “Validation of Traditional Claim of Tulsi, Ocimum sanctum Linn. as a Medicinal Plant”. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology.
  86. Sharma, P.V. (1996). Classical Uses of Medicinal Plants. Chaukhamba Visvabharati.
  87. Dhargalkar, N., & Anil, B. (2014). “Panchakarma: The Comprehensive Ayurvedic Therapy for Detoxification and Healing”. Ayurveda Journal of Health.
  88. Joshi, K. (2010). “Role of Surya Namaskar in the Management of Depression”. Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy.
  89. Subramanya, P., & Telles, S. (2009). “Effect of Two Yoga-Based Relaxation Techniques on Memory Scores and State Anxiety”. Biopsychosocial Medicine.
  90. Agarwal, V., Abhijit, R., & Khandelwal, S.K. (2013). “Herbal Medicine for Insomnia: A Review of Recent Research”. Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy.
  91. Balasubramanian, P., Jagtap, A.G., & Chaudhari, P. (2011). “Scientific Validation of the Medicinal Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia”. The Scientific World Journal.
  92. Pratte, M.A., Nanavati, K.B., Young, V., & Morley, C.P. (2014). “An Alternative Treatment for Anxiety: A Systematic Review of Human Trial Results Reported for the Ayurvedic Herb Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)”. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.
  93. Lad, V. (1998). The Complete Book of Ayurvedic Home Remedies. Three Rivers Press, pp. 102-108.
  94. Frawley, D. (1996). Ayurvedic Healing: A Comprehensive Guide. Lotus Press, pp. 210-215.
  95. Halpern, M. (2011). Clinical Ayurvedic Medicine. California College of Ayurveda, pp. 56-60.
  96. Svoboda, R. (2004). Prakriti: Your Ayurvedic Constitution. Lotus Press, pp. 134-138.
  97. Pole, S. (2006). Ayurvedic Medicine: The Principles of Traditional Practice. Churchill Livingstone, pp. 89-94.
  98. Tiwari, M. (1995). Ayurveda: A Life of Balance. Healing Arts Press, pp. 112-117.
  99. Mishra, L.C. (2003). Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies. CRC Press, pp. 243-248.
  100. Johari, H. (1989). Ayurveda: A Life of Balance. Destiny Books, pp. 75-80.
  101. Chopra, D., & Simon, D. (2000). The Chopra Center Herbal Handbook. Three Rivers Press, pp. 65-70.
  102. Tirtha, S.S. (2014). The Ayurveda Encyclopedia: Natural Secrets to Healing, Prevention, and Longevity. Ayurveda Holistic Center Press, pp. 190-195.
  103. Sharma, H., & Clark, C. (1998). Contemporary Ayurveda: Medicine and Research in Maharishi Ayur-Veda. Churchill Livingstone, pp. 101-105.

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article belong to the author. Indic Today is neither responsible nor liable for the accuracy, completeness, suitability, or validity of any information in the article.