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Garbhādhāna -Part II – Maithuna And The Śāstras

This part of the Garbhādhāna series deals more precisely about Maithuna with references from our Śāstras.

Is it appropriate for the Śāstras to discuss Sex Education?

Śṛṅgāra Rasa (erotica) is among the Navarasas[1] and is dealt with in literature, music, poetry, dance and drama. Kāma is also an integral part of the Dhārmic journey of life. The Sastrās say that every Karma has the potential to enrich our day-to-day life.

The health aspects of Kāma are usually delicately avoided in favour of discussing sensual aspects.

बलं बलवतां चाहं कामरागविवर्जितम्

धर्माविरुद्धो भूतेषु कामोऽस्मि भरतर्षभ॥ Bhagavat Gītā 7/11

Bhagavān Kṛṣṇa mentions the following words to Arjuna.

“I am the strength of the mighty persons whose strength is steadfast and free from unnecessary desire and passion. At the same time, I am their Kāma (desire) which is not contradictory to Dharma.”

Ṛṣis have imparted sex education to their disciples, but subtly through various Śāstras, but not just through Kāma Śāstra alone. We need to be aware of one rule – Guṇopasaṃhāra Nyāya[2]. (This rule states that one must assess all available information from many reliable sources to arrive at a conclusion for a specific question.)

E.g., If one were to give a conclusion about Gaṅgā Māhatyam; various Purāṇās, Śāstras, Itihāsas, Vedic references must be quoted to give the precise answer. Otherwise, one may end up giving an inadequate solution.

Guṇopasaṃhāra Nyāya is like writing a scholarly article having over 100+ references to arrive at the most precise solution with proper justifications.

Here, we are going to apply this Guṇopasaṃhāra Nyāya and explore about Maithuna (coitus).

Is a marriage to be consummated on the very night of the wedding?

“First night” is the term that is often used for Garbhādhāna, but the Śāstras do not endorse having this Saṃskāra the very night after the completion of Vivāha Saṃskāra. This “First night” should not be on the night of marriage but at a particular muhurta suggested as per Śāstra and Sampradāya.[3]

Many things are to be observed as per injunctions of Jyotiṣa Śāstra and for the Vivāha mantras to have potency; this Garbhādhāna must happen on the most suitable day. Many special prayers are made during Vivāha that ensure happiness and prosperity for the couple.

The auspicious time for Vivāha and Garbhādhāna will not be on the same day for anyone. But time alone is not the significant factor. Since Vivāha Saṃskāra has lots of defence mechanisms and firewalls to protect the couple against future troubles, sexual intimacy is to be avoided for the next three days consecutively to enhance the benefits of Vivāha Saṃskāra. (The calculation of the day is made from Sunrise till next morning’s Sunrise, not with 12 a.m. timings.)

The prerequisite for Maithuna/Sexual Intercourse

सञ्जातहर्षौ मैथुने चानुकूलाविष्टगन्धं स्वास्तीर्णं सुखं शयनमुपकल्प्य मनोज्ञं हितमशनमशित्वा नात्यशितौ दक्षिणपादेनपुमानारोहेत् वामपादेन स्त्री॥७॥

CarakaSamhitā. Śārīra​ Sthāna​.8/7

“The couple must be enthusiastic about the sexual act.

Their favourite food (nutritive one) must be consumed in moderation (in advance before the act, at least before 2 hours).

The bed must have a comfortable mattress and the room must have a pleasant aroma for creating the proper ambience.

First, the man must enter the bed with his right foot.

Then, the woman must enter the bed with her left foot.[4]

For physical activity like the sexual act, it is suggested to practise a breathing exercise like Prānayāma as a prelude or warm-up.

Prānayāma must be learnt from a proper Guru to truly utilize it. Otherwise, even a simple form of deep abdominal breathing (inhalation and exhalation only through both nostrils to one’s capacity) will suffice to make the body and mind fit for maithuna. (This is advised even before having foreplay.)

This breathing advice is given from an Āyurvedic point of view bearing that many suffer from conditions like migraines, asthma, PCOS, and other ailments that may hinder the coital act.[5]

Regimen for boosting libido and sexual vigour

 यत् किञ्चिन्मधुरं स्निग्धं जीवनं बृंहणं गुरु।

हर्षणं मनसश्चैव सर्वं तद्वृष्यमुच्यते॥३६॥

द्रव्यैरेवंविधैस्तस्माद्भावितः प्रमदां व्रजेत्।

आत्मवेगेन चोदीर्णः स्त्रीगुणैश्च प्रहर्षितः॥३७॥

गत्वा स्नात्वा पयः पीत्वा रसं वाऽनु शयीत ना।

तथाऽस्याप्यायते भूयः शुक्रं च बलमेव च॥३८॥ Caraka Samhitā Citiksā Sthāna 2/36-38

“Any food or beverage that is sweet, unctuous, energising, nourishing and heavy to digest and causing mental arousal, is said to boost one’s libido. E.g., Sweet Pongal, Kheer, etc. (Too much sweet is also contraindicated and the current scenario with sugar and dairy products have made the situation complex, but anything sweet in moderation is recommended.)

Therefore, a person must make use of these above-mentioned things before engaging in maithuna. By this, a person would get aroused by his/her urge and by the physical attributes of the partner also. After the maithuna, a bath[6], then consumption of milk or meat soup (as per one’s food practice), and sleep are recommended. By following these, the body would get re-energized.”

All these foods have been specially mentioned in Āyurveda classics exclusively.

An excessive amount of spice or salt or sour flavour (in the food) affects the pH of the semen and thereby limits the sperms’ motility. These flavours have a subtle effect on the mind also. So, their quantity is restricted for the meal before maithuna.

Appropriate places

It is always better to have maithuna in one’s own bed. For conceiving, it is ideal to conceive in an accustomed place. It is advisable to avoid having maithuna in places where the bed is used by others.

Hygiene is the number one priority even as per protocols of our Śāstrās and some items like cots or mattresses or pillows or blankets must not be shared, especially when used by others.

The Garbhādhāna Saṃskāra at least must not occur in a marriage hall room or a hotel (where the same bed is used by many), rather in one’s own bed at home.

Apparel and Cosmetics during maithuna

अमुक्तवसना योषिद् विमुक्तवसनः पुमान्।

संविशेतामुभौ मुक्तवसनौ कलिराविशेत्॥ Smṛti Muktā Phalam, Vṛddha Manu

“While engaging in maithuna, the male can be naked, but the female must have some cloth over her body (even a small towel or scarf or shawl will suffice). If both are naked while engaging in maithuna, it will attract Kali Doṣa (the progeny may not be with the expected qualities.)”

The main context is that both must not be naked. In regions where winter is severe, some clothes are obviously necessary for both.

One more note about the clothes, the clothes that are used while engaging in maithuna must not be used at other times which include cooking, Devatā worship, our official duties, etc. One may keep some sets of clothes or inner garments only for this purpose.[7]

The beauty products may have become necessary in public appearance but are to be avoided here since harmful substances from the cosmetics may get deposited in the body through the contact with mouth and lips.[8]

The position of Yajñopavītam/Janeū/Poonal during maithuna

(Applicable only to certain families and traditions)

उपवीती स्त्रियं गच्छेत्-ऋतुकाले तु वै बुधः।

निवीतमनृतौ कुर्यात्तद्दोषस्य निवृत्तये ॥ Smṛti Muktā Phalam, Vṛddha Manu

If uniting during Ritu KālaYajñopavītam shall be in the normal position (Upavītī). (Just consider the first 16 days as given in the text and do not consider the ovulation period calculation here.)

If uniting during other times, it shall be worn like a garland (Nivītī).

Ayurveda Recommendations for posture

न च न्युब्जां पार्श्वगतां वा संसेवेत|

न्युब्जाया वातो बलवान् स योनिं पीडयति, पार्श्वगताया दक्षिणे पार्श्वे श्लेष्मा स च्युतः पिदधाति गर्भाशयं, वामे पार्श्वे पित्तं तदस्याः पीडितं विदहति रक्तं शुक्रं च, तस्मादुत्ताना बीजं गृह्णीयात्; तथाहि यथास्थानमवतिष्ठन्ते दोषाः|

पर्याप्ते चैनां शीतोदकेन परिषिञ्चेत्| Caraka Samhitā, Sārira Sthāna 8.6

Contraindicated Positions –

“When a couple is having maithuna, the woman must not lie –

  1. In prone position (over the man with her back facing the ceiling).
  2. In her left or right lateral (side) position.

Effects of Contraindicated Positions –

Prone position aggravates her Vāta Doṣa.

Left lateral position aggravates her Pitta Doṣa.

Right lateral position aggravates her Kapha Doṣa.

After the act, both must wash their genitalia with normal room temperature water.”

The above positions are contraindicated as they may affect the health of the woman and the child (if conceived). Each Doṣa has a broad spectrum of ailments and is not elaborated here.

These positions are contraindicated while the penetration is being carried out, during foreplay or cuddling, other positions can be tried.

The general misconception in this matter that the man on top or woman on top will produce a male or female child respectively, has no scientific or Śāstric backing.

The ideal position –

The Mahaṛṣis have prescribed only one ideal position for maithuna – Man on top[9] (him being over the woman in any comfortable posture) and the woman below – supine position (her face/frontside facing the ceiling).

It is ideal to have the head pointing towards the Eastern direction[10] (for both the participants while engaging in maithuna) and facing South is the secondary preference. West and North directions are better to be avoided.

तत्रात्यशिता क्षुधिता पिपासिता भीता विमनाः शोकार्ता क्रुद्धाऽन्यं च पुमांसमिच्छन्ती मैथुने चातिकामा वा न गर्भं धत्ते| विगुणां वा प्रजां जनयति|

अतिबालामतिवृद्धां दीर्घरोगिणीमन्येन वा विकारेणोपसृष्टां वर्जयेत्|

पुरुषेऽप्येत एव दोषाः| अतः सर्वदोषवर्जितौ स्त्रीपुरुषौ संसृज्येयाताम्||६||

Caraka Samhitā Sārira Sthāna 8.6

Contraindications related to the body and mind –

“Any of the following conditions – overeating before maithuna, being parched with thirst, scared, unhappy, angry, having an extramarital affair may make any woman fail to conceive and if she conceives, she begets a child with some defects. The same applies to men also.”

Other contraindications related to age and disease –

  1. Being not mature enough i.e., below 16 years of age for females and below 21 years – males.[11] Some Ācāryas feel that it must be below 25 years for men.
  2. Being above 50 years of age. (The 3rd point also must be noted, this reduces overall immunity when the body starts weakening when the age is over 50 or 60.)
  3. Having serious chronic ailments.
  4. If either the man or woman engages in maithuna without interest or desire.

Maithuna during Pregnancy

षण्मासान् कामयेन्नित्यं गुर्विणीमेव वै स्त्रियम्।

आदन्तजननादूर्ध्वमेवं धर्मो न हीयते॥ (Atri Smṛtiḥ)

“One may have maithuna with his wife till the sixth month of pregnancy (approximately till the second trimester) and thereafter to be avoided till delivery of birth. After the baby is born, it is advisable to have maithuna once the dentition is observed in the baby. (After 6-12 months approx. of birth.)”

Note -Everyone is different; some women may feel the urge and others may not. The woman’s consent is always mandatory. Maithuna is not harmful to either the mother or the foetus. It is also not morally wrong for the couple to have maithuna while the woman is pregnant. But maithuna demands a lot of energy and nutrition, it is ideal to have maithuna in moderation and be satisfied with lighter forms of intimacy to avoid health issues.

There is a Śāstric view that one must not have maithuna during pregnancy but the Śāstras have been written considering people from all backgrounds and these have been given. The above instruction from Atri Smṛti must be followed when one is unable to avoid having maithuna during pregnancy. Maithuna only for the sake of progeny is commended but everyone will not be able to follow that.

At the same time, the Parvā days or Janma Nakṣatra or 10th or 19th Nakṣatra from the Janma Nakṣatra must be avoided for maithuna even after conceiving since these play a major role in health.[12]

Usually, till the fifth or sixth month, it is safe to have maithuna, and man in top position can be continued with modifications. After the sixth month, having maithuna will likely cause discomfort to the mother and foetus.

The mother may develop a condition called ‘Morning Sickness’ which may make her vomit or feel nauseous often. This may continue till the end of the first trimester (first three months). Morning Sickness may drive the sexual urge low.

In specific conditions, the obstetrician may advise against having sexual intercourse as it may harm the growing foetus.

Maithuna after Pregnancy

Also, the female may not be physically fit to have maithuna at least for three months after giving birth.

The idea behind giving some gap for conceiving again is for sustaining Dharma, nourishment, and physical recovery. Leaving a year or two is also ideal since the above verse recommends postponing maithuna till the appearance of teeth in the recently born child. The aspect of Dharma here is to allow the women’s body to rejuvenate both physically and mentally as women are not to be treated like machines.

One of the main reasons for a lady getting weaker is conceiving soon after the first delivery. Often, a woman may develop nutritional deficiencies since she also must eat adequately for her future baby to be healthy.

Benefits of following the proper protocol for maithuna


स्थिरोपचितमांसाश्च भवन्तिस्त्रीषुसंयुताः॥ (Bhāvaprakāśa 15/274)

Observing the proper protocol for maithuna will bestow the following benefits-

  1. Delayed Ageing and a long life span.
  2. Good bodily strength and appearance.
  3. Robust and firm muscle power.

So far, some physical aspects have been covered. Let us explore the other related aspects in detail now.

Pitṛ Ṛṇam (The debt that one owes towards his parents and immediate ancestors.)

Begetting a child is no ordinary matter, Pitṛ Ṛṇam is linked to a couple’s child. Only a child who is fit physically, intellectually, and enlightened spiritually will be competent enough to support his parents and ancestors during their lifetime and thereafter.

Is the coital act alone important?

When we go into the topic ‘Garbhādhāna’ (as a Saṃskāra), Maithuna is suggested as a tool to preserve our prowess of Brahmacarya. The portion regarding Brahmacarya will be explained later here.

The important aspects of Garbhādhāna or Maithuna can be broken down with Pre-op and Post-op requirements. Just as in surgery, the things which are done before and after have equal importance; the same is applicable for Maithuna also.

We must contemplate over this thing; the sensual and appealing aspects are always frequently hyped in the media. If someone mentions the name ‘Kāmasūtra’, people immediately think that it is something about erotica and sex. But is it only about erotica and sex? Certainly not. It fundamentally deals with Dharma related to Maithuna. But when modern writers take it for discussion, many important Śāstric matters are normally left out, and thus, we end up with a false insight, and most of the readers will be left misinformed. Thus, we will require proper knowledge of any Śāstra and validate it with other Śāstras bestowed by our wise Mahāns.

Many Ācāryas have spoken about various nuances concerning the Śāstras that guide us on the path of Dharma. Hence, we must rectify our generation’s errors from the root and great care must be given from the time of procreation or maithuna to ensure better benefits.

Factors determining the Janma Lagna of the desired baby

Let us discuss the appropriate Kāla for maithuna.

केचिद्यथाधानविलग्नमन्ये शीर्षोदयं भूपतनं हि केचित् ।

होराविदश्चेतनकाययोन्योर्वियोगकालं कथयन्ति लग्नम्॥ Phaladīpikā 13.2

“For determining the Janma Lagna (the birth time that is used for astrological calculation) of the desired baby, different opinions are held by the Mahaṛṣis

  1. Time of insemination.
  2. Time at which the baby’s head becomes visible during labour.
  3. Time at which the child establishes contact with the ground.
  4. Time at which the child is completely separated from the mother.”

The fourth opinion is often considered in today’s practice and the first opinion is also kept in high regard as the Niṣeka/Ādhāna (Insemination) Lagna can determine various things about the mother and child. So, the night in which the maithuna takes place is also important for the overall welfare of the family.


रस इक्षौ यथा दध्नि सर्पिस्तैलं तिले यथा।

सर्वत्रानुगतं देहे शुक्रं संस्पर्शने तथा॥४६॥ Caraka Saṃhitā Cikitsa Sthāna 2.4/46

“As the sweetened juice exists inside the parts of sugarcane, ghee inside the curd, sesame oil inside the sesame seed, Śukra permeates throughout the body within every part.”

Śukra need not be compared with semen. Semen might be a part of Śukra, but not the entire Śukra itself. Āyurveda and Yoga Śāstras mention that Śukra is a divine energy that helps the body achieve greater things and manifests itself as “Ojas[13], a subtle invisible force that bestows many kinds of fortune upon us, Śukra is present in females also. Females do not have semen, and this will not make sense if Śukra was only semen. Śukra can be described as a vital component in our body, especially related to the reproductive system.

‘Retas’ is the specific term used for semen.


The perception of modern science may claim that masturbation is good for health; the immediate effects of masturbation can be noted with health monitoring devices, the semen lost may get replenished within a few hours, but nobody precisely or entirely knows about the effects that come later.

मरणं बिन्दुपातेन जीवनं बिन्दुधारणात् ॥

सुगन्धो योगिनो देहे जायते बिन्दुधारणात्।

यावद्बिन्दुः स्थिरो देहे तावत्कालभयं कुतः॥ Haṭhayogapradīpikā, Upadeśaḥ 3/ 88-89

“Conserving one’s semen is conducive to one’s health whereas frequent seminal discharges make the body weaker. Having absolute control over one’s excessive passion ensures sound health and bestows a kind of aroma in the body.” Śukra (semen too is an essential part of Śukra) once formed must be converted to Ojas[14] for a better quality of life and the person gets a unique brilliance in appearance and speech. Many great achievers of our country and Ṛṣis have accomplished great feats by their adherence to sincere Brahmacharya. The same applies to females also.

Sexual Activity and Brahmacarya

ऋतावृतौ स्वदारेषु सङ्गतिश्च विधानतः।

ब्रह्मचर्यं च तत्प्रोक्तं गृहस्थाश्रमवासिनाम्॥ (Vasiṣṭha Saṃhitā)

“One who cohabits with his wife during Ritu Kāla (5th-16thday but refer to the footnote 4 also of part 1) does not lose his power of Brahmacarya. Having maithuna during times other than this period or when he mentally/physically imagines intimate matters about a person who is not his Sāstrically wedded wife; he loses his Brahmacarya power.” The same applies to a woman also and is of utmost importance.[15] (Brahma = The divine force, carya = regimen; Brahmacarya can be explained like the regimen to Brahman/Mokṣa.)

People may argue that mentally doing it is not sinful but mentally, people can do it for a longer time. Thus, this also must be avoided.

Masturbating also weakens the prowess of Brahmacarya in a person.

Brahmacarya converts Śukra to Ojas and is not just related to maithuna. Brahmacarya bestows spiritual and financial bonuses to those practising it.

Oral Sex, Anal Sex and Pornography are not encouraged

न त्वेतद्ब्राह्मणो विद्वान्मन्त्री वा राजधूर्धरः

गृहीतप्रत्ययो वाऽपि कारयेदौपरिष्टकम् ॥ Kāmasūtra II2.9/36॥

न शास्त्रमस्तीत्येतावत्प्रयोगे कारणं भवेत्।

शास्त्रार्थान्व्यापिनो विद्यात्प्रयोगांस्त्वेकदेशिकान् ॥ Kāmasūtra II2.9/37॥

Aupariṣṭakam (Oral sex) must never be practised by anyone who endeavours to have a good reputation, especially it is contraindicated to those who are supposed to be the guide and role model for others, i.e., a learned Brāhmana, Minister to the Head of a State and those who work for the welfare for the nation. (The Śāstras never prescribe this to anyone in general.)

The Sastras including Kāma Śāstra may discuss a variety of subjects but that does not warrant anyone to practice all those things that are discussed. This has been discussed considering the below verse.

शास्त्राणां विषयस्तावत् यावन्मन्दरसा नराः।

रतिचक्रे प्रवृत्ते तु नैव शास्त्रं न च क्रमः॥ Kāmasūtra 2.2/31

People are interested in the Śāstras as long as their passion is not kindled but once when aroused, the intention of following the Śāstras gets diminished.

The act of oral sex that is discussed in the Kāma Śāstra is discouraged since many Ācāryās have condemned this, perhaps due to the possibility of contracting infections and other reasons that are unknown to us. (Jyotiṣa Śāstras use another term for this act – “Bhagacumbanam”.)

Also, Bhagavān Dhanvantari condemns the practice of watching others engaged in any kind of close physical intimacy, oral or anal sex. All these are explained in the 2nd Adhyāya, Sārira Sthāna of Suśruta Samhitā.

These parts have the name “Urogenital”[16] organ for a reason, many kinds of other infections (apart from sexually transmitted infections) also transmit, and the natural defence mechanism present in the mouth is not sufficient to protect the human body.

It is also to note that ejaculating in a woman’s face/mouth is a great offense, very unhygienic and condemned in the Śāstras.[17]


There are some methods mentioned in Āyurveda, but we do not have the entire data of all the used methods as many original scriptures are missing today. The Āyurveda methods are a bit complex to follow and have stricter protocols whereas we have some easy-to-use contraceptives now and these can be used. Physical barrier methods can be used (these have the least side effects) and other methods like Intra-Uterine Devices or surgical methods can be utilized. These matters must be discussed with a physician.

Is the use of contraceptives bad karma?

Yes, a man wasting his semen during the Ritu Kāla is an offense. But not caring for or raising a child sincerely is a greater offense.

The Ṛṣis have permitted to have maithuna (in essence, they have advised the calendar method as a contraceptive method, but the female has the say in this).

A Prāyaścitta must be done by the couple. Do not take this in an offending manner, the current era makes everyone commit some bad deeds one way or the other.

So, a general recommendation (and Prāyaścitta) for the couple – both the man and woman must devote a minimum of 30 minutes like chanting Bhagavān Nāma or reciting a Stotra for the wellness of the child every day till the child is born.

During pregnancy, the mother must be imparted all kinds of good things for the child to be great. Once the female has conceived, everyone in the family must make every effort in securing Puṇya[18] day and night for the child to be an asset to the world.


The article is written for kindling one’s interest in the Śāstric matters and not as an advice for any medical or scientific issue. Please consult the concerned person for any medical advice.

Prahlāda, Sāvitrī Devī (wife of Satyavān), Mārkaṇḍeya Ṛṣi[19] and many other extraordinary individuals were created by this protocol. The maithuna protocol bestows great rewards but the parents of these mentioned individuals performed many other complementary meritorious deeds to increase the likelihood of having excellent progeny and ensure that the society is benefitted by their progeny also.

अपुत्राः पुत्रिणः सन्तु पुत्रिणः सन्तु पौत्रिणः।

अधनाः सधनाः सन्तु जीवन्तु शरदां शतम्॥

This Maṅgala Śloka is usually recited after performing auspicious deeds and requests Īśvara to bless those without progeny to be blessed with children and grandchildren (requesting for grandchildren in advance) with virtuous traits and to bless those without wealth with all kinds of prosperity and live for a whole hundred years.

पुत्रात् इच्छेत् पराजयम्। शिष्यात् इच्छेत् पराभवम्।

It is said that everyone would desire to face defeat at the hands of their own children or pupils.

Everyone wants a child like Kārttikeya, i.e., a child that is better than his /her parent (in terms of knowledge, character, and skills) but it requires the proper season and time to get anything beneficial to us with the help of nature. The aspect of time will be dealt in Part 3.

लोका: समस्ता: सुखिनो भवन्तु।

Lokā: Samastā: Sukhino Bhavantu.

[1] Navarasas = The nine kinds of reaction or expression that are generated in the readers or audience.

[2]एकं शास्त्रमधीयानो न विद्याच्छास्त्रनिश्चयम् ।तस्माद्बहुश्रुतः शास्त्रं विजानीयाच्चिकित्सकः॥ (Suśruta Samhitā  Su.4/7) A verse similar to the idea of Guṇopasaṃhāra Nyāya)

[3] The timings have been explained in Part 3.

[4] The lady can use her left foot to enter first, though usually the right hand or foot is preferred. In this instance, the Śāstra recommends the use of the left foot since it is auspicious for this act.

[5] Many scholarly articles address the problem related to certain diseases and coitus; one must be aware of the health-related matters also.

[6] Only during Ritu Kāla, have a bath. At other times, washing the genital parts and leg and rinsing of the mouth will suffice (this can be done even if one is unable to bathe during Ritu Kāla of the woman). Bathing or washing are mentioned for both the man and woman.

[7] स्त्रीवाससैव सन्निपातः स्याद्यावत्सन्निपातं च सहशय्या ततो नानेनेति॥ स्त्रीवाससा = स्त्रीसंयोगार्थवाससा, सन्निपातः – संयोगः॥ Smṛti Muktā Phalam, Vṛddha Manu

[8]प्रसङ्गाद्गात्रसंस्पर्शान्निश्वासात् सहभोजनात् । सहशय्यासनाच्चापि वस्त्रमाल्यानुलेपनात् ॥३३॥

कुष्ठं ज्वरश्च शोषश्च नेत्राभिष्यन्द एव च ।औपसर्गिकरोगाश्च सङ्क्रामन्ति नरान्नरम् ॥३४॥

(Suśruta Saṃhitā Nidāna Sthāna 5/33​) This verse indirectly covers about various ways in which a disease spreads, even cosmetics are mentioned.

[9] Note – If the man is overweight, or unable to be over the top. Try some variations of man on top position. If the man on top is completely not possible due to some reason, try other positions and ensure that the other guidelines and Saṃskāras are done properly.

[10] प्राग्दक्षिणशिराः पादावकुर्वाणो गुरून् प्रति। पूर्वापरदिशो भागे धर्ममेवानुचिन्तयन्॥ ​ Aṣṭāṅga Saṅgraham Sūtra Sthāna – 3/121

[11]AṣṭāṅgahṛdayaM, ŚārīrasthānaM, Adhyāyaḥ 1/8 – Aruṇadatta Ṭīkā

[12] More details will be provided in part 2 where the Nakṣatra details are elaborated in detail.

[13]Ojas can be explained as a defense mechanism mentioned in many places for ensuring overall health, especially to the sense organs.

[14] अस्यावस्थानतो पुंसामोजो नामाष्टमी दशा। भवत्ययं यया जन्तुस्तेजस्वी सन् हि जीवति॥

अस्य संस्थापने नृणां जरा वैरूप्यकारिणी। मृत्युश्च न भवेच्छीघ्रं बलं चेह न नश्यति॥ (Śaṅkarānanda)

[15]ओं ब्रह्मचारिण्यै नमः, Sītā Devī Aṣṭottaraśata Nāmāvaliḥ

[16]Functions in helping to eliminate the nitrogenous wastes and acts as a sexual organ. Since it is a vital part of the urinary system also, hence it is named “Urogenital”.

[17]यस्तु पाणिगृहीताया आस्ये गच्छति मैथुनम्। तस्येह निष्कृतिर्नास्तीत्येवमाह प्रजापतिरिति॥- Bodhāyana Dharma Sūtram

[18] The good reward that is procured by performing meritorious deeds.

[19]Śuddhosi buddhosi…, Sung by Madālasā Devī from Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa is also famous in North India as an example for performing lots of Puṇya to beget and raise admirable children.

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Garbhadhana Part I

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